Tuesday, 20 March 2018

Mapping Mountains – Significant Name Changes – The Fours

The Warren (SO 318 685)

There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in The Fours, with the summit height, drop and status of the hill confirmed by a Trimble GeoXH 6000 survey conducted by Myrddyn Phillips which took place on the 15th February 2018.

The criteria for the list that this name change applies to are:

The Fours – English hills at and above 400m and below 500m in height that have 30m minimum drop. 

Accompanying the main list of The Fours are three categories of sub hills, with this hill being classified in the 400m Sub-Four categoryThe criteria for 400m Sub-Four status are all English hills at and above 400m and below 500m in height that have 20m or more and below 30m of drop.

The list is co-authored by Myrddyn Phillips and Aled Williams, with the 1st edition of the list having been published by Europeaklist in December 2013 and by Haroldstreet in January 2014, with the 2nd edition of the list due for publication by Mapping Mountains Publications in early 2018.

The hill is situated in the Welsh Borders and is placed in Region 38, Section 38B with its Cardinal Hill being Beacon Hill (SO 176 767).  The hill is positioned above the B 4355 road which is to its south-west, and is situated between the small community of Norton to the south-west and the town of Trefyclo (Knighton) to the north-west.

The Warren (SO 318 685)

This hill was not included in the listing that is now known as The Fours when originally compiled as it did not at that stage meet the criteria for the sub-list which was entitled ‘Hills to measure’, this sub-list has now been standardised and therefore this hill is included.  When this list was subsequently uploaded to the RHB Yahoo group file database and data then augmented from Clem Clements it appeared listed as; Stonewall Hill (The Warren)

Hill list authors are prone to list a hill by the name that appears nearest to its summit on contemporary Ordnance Survey maps, without much consideration for its local or historical confirmation, or whether map placement is appropriate, and in the case of this hill there are two names that are consistently applied near to its summit on different scaled Ordnance Survey maps, these names are Stonewall Hill and The Warren.

With time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historical documents, through this form of research the most appropriate name for the hill can usually be found, and in the case of this hill it is the series of different scaled Ordnance Survey maps whose placement of the names Stonewall Hill and The Warren have been generally consistent that imply the most appropriate name for this hill is The Warren, however for clarification of the land boundary given to these two names it is the Tithe map that was consulted.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

Since the original publication of this list on the RHB Yahoo Group file database there have been a number of Ordnance Survey maps made available online, some of these are historical such as the series of Six-Inch maps on the National Library of Scotland website, whilst others are current and digitally updated such as the Interactive Coverage Map hosted on the Geograph website.  One of the historical maps now available is the One-Inch ‘Old Series’ map which was the first map made publicly available by the Ordnance Survey.

The One-Inch ‘Old Series’ was the first map that Ordnance Survey published, and they were based on the preceding Draft Surveyors map.  There publication culminated from the whole of Britain being surveyed between 1791 and 1874 and the detail gathered therein produced at a scale of one inch to the mile and published in sheet format between 1805 and 1874.  The One-Inch ‘Old Series’ maps for the whole of England are now available online; they are also available in map format as enlarged and re-projected versions to match the scale and dimensions on the Ordnance Survey 1:50,000 Landranger series and are published by Cassini.  This series of maps forms another important part in the study of upland place-names and bridge the time frame leading to the production of the Ordnance Survey base map of the Six-Inch series.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey One-Inch 'Old Series' map

The term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in these two countries.

The enclosed land where the summit of a hill is situated is usually given a number on the Tithe map, this can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  However, in this instance the land where the summit of this hill is situated is named as The Warren, with the land boundary between it and Stonewall Hill being the narrow road to the west of the summit which also forms a part of the designated border between England and Wales.  This information appears on the Tithe map for the counties of Hereford and Radnor and in the parish of Presteigne.

Extract from the Tithe map

Therefore, the name this hill is listed by in The Fours is The Warren and this was derived from the series of different scaled Ordnance Survey maps and substantiated by the Tithe map. 

The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Beacon Hill

Name:  The Warren

Previously Listed Name:  Stonewall Hill (The Warren)
Summit Height:  403.8m (converted to OSGM15)

OS 1:50,000 map:  137, 148

Summit Grid Reference:  SO 31855 68590
Drop:  27.45m (converted to OSGM15)

Myrddyn Phillips and Aled Williams (March 2018)


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