Sunday, 24 March 2019

Mapping Mountains – Significant Name Changes – 100m Twmpau


Maes Glas Mawr (SH 768 724)

There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau, with the summit height, its location, the drop and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis, and a subsequent summit survey with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 conducted by Myrddyn Phillips, with the latter taking place on the 10th October 2018.

Maes Glas Mawr (SH 768 724)

The criteria for the list that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

The hill is adjoined to the Carneddau group of hills, which are situated in the north-western part of North Wales (Region A, Sub-Region A1), and it is encircled by minor roads with the B5106 road and the Afon Conwy (River Conwy) to its east, and has the town of Conwy towards its north.

The hill originally appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the partly invented and transposed name of Bryn Glyn Uchaf with an accompanying note stating; Name from buildings to the South-West.
 

Bryn Glyn Uchaf
107m
115
17
Height from 1989 1:50000 map. Name from buildings to the South-West


During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put Pen, Bryn or Moel in front of them.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historic documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

After visiting this hill I called at Glyn Uchaf farm and followed instructions pinned on the front door to call at the new house, which is situated just down the track from Glyn Uchaf.  Having knocked on the front door of the new house, Tomi Owen opened it and immediately invited me in and offered me a drink and a bite to eat.  I sat at the table with my rucksack on the kitchen floor whilst Tomi offered me a cup of tea and a refreshing cold drink of orange, during which I happily indulged in a plate full of shortbread.  Having explained where I’d been and my interest in upland place-names Tomi told me that he’d lived at Glyn Uchaf since 1947 and is now aged 76 and that the hill is on his land and although it has no individual name the upper field where the summit is situated is known as Maes Glas Mawr.

Tomi Owen of Glyn Uchaf farm

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau is Maes Glas Mawr, and this was derived from local enquiry.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Carneddau

Name:  Maes Glas Mawr

Previously Listed Name:  Bryn Glyn Uchaf 

OS 1:50,000 map:  115

Summit Height:  108.5m (converted to OSGM15)

Summit Grid Reference:  SH 76876 72414

Bwlch Height:  87.05m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SH 76604 71933 (LIDAR) 

Drop:  21.4m (Trimble summit and LIDAR bwlch)



Myrddyn Phillips (March 2019)



Saturday, 23 March 2019

Mapping Mountains – Hill Reclassifications – The Fours


Horn Crag (NY 318 099) – 400m Sub-Four addition

There has been an addition to the listing of The Fours due to LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.  The Fours is the title for the list of 400m hills of England and takes in all English hills at or above 400m and below 500m in height that have a minimum 30m of drop, the list is co-authored by Myrddyn Phillips and Aled Williams and the 2nd edition of the booklet containing this list was published by Mapping Mountains Publications on the 24th April 2018.

Accompanying the main list of The Fours are three categories of sub hills, with this hill being added to the 400m Sub-Fours.  The criteria for 400m Sub-Four status are all English hills at or above 400m and below 500m in height that have 20m or more and below 30m of drop. 
 
Prior to LIDAR analysis this hill was listed with c 17m of drop based on an estimated c 422m summit height and an estimated col height of c 405m with both heights based on interpolation of 10m contouring on the Ordnance Survey 1:50,000 Landranger and 1:25,000 Explorer maps, with the col contours between 400m – 405m on OS Maps, which is the recent replacement for OS Get-a-map.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

The name of the hill is Horn Crag and it is situated in the Lake District which constitutes Region 34, and is positioned in the Central and Western Fells which are a part of Section 34B, with its Cardinal Hill being Scafell Pike (NY 215 072).  The hill is positioned between Calf Crag towards the west and Helm Crag towards the south-east and has the A591 road and the village of Grasmere towards the south-east.

As the summit of the hill is a part of designated open access land it can in theory be approached from a number of directions, with access on its ridge from Helm Crag being popular, and access on to this same ridge from the opposing steam valleys of Green Burn to the north-east and Far Easedale Gill from the south-west also feasible.

The addition of Horn Crag to 400m Sub-Four status is due to LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.  The LIDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) technique produced highly accurate height data that is now freely available for much of England and Wales.


LIDAR analysis gives the hill the following details:

Horn Crag

Summit Height:  421.85m

Summit Grid Reference:  NY 31852 09924

Col Height:  400.4m

Col Grid Reference:  NY 31740 09996

Drop:  21.5m

LIDAR image of Horn Crag

Therefore, the 421.85m LIDAR analysis for the summit position at NY 31852 09924 and the 400.4m LIDAR analysis for the col position at NY 31740 09996 gives this hill 21.5m of drop, which is sufficient for it to be classified as a 400m Sub-Four.


The full details for the hill are:

Cardinal Hill:  Scafell Pike

Name:  Horn Crag

OS 1:50,000 map:  90

Summit Height:  421.85m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  NY 31852 09924 (LIDAR)

Col Height:  400.4m (LIDAR)

Col Grid Reference:  NY 31740 09996 (LIDAR)

Drop:  21.5m (LIDAR)


For the additions, deletions and reclassifications to The Fours reported on Mapping Mountains since the December 2013 publication of the list by Europeaklist please consult the following Change Registers:







Myrddyn Phillips and Aled Williams (March 2019)




Friday, 22 March 2019

Mapping Mountains – Trimble Surveys – Ynys Môn


22.10.18  Bwrdd Arthur (SH 585 812)  

Bwrdd Arthur (SH 585 812)

Bwrdd Arthur is also known as Din Sylwy and is positioned overlooking the eastern coast of Ynys Môn.  The hill is designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) due to its limestone plateau giving rise to varied species of botanical interest.  The upper part of the hill is also designated open access land, whilst the remains of an ancient hill fort are situated on its northern slopes.  The latter is at least of Roman period if not older with two entrance ways still evident.

I approached the hill from the south having parked at the entrance to a near transmitting mast.  It was only a short walk down the continuation of the narrow road toward the start of a public footpath which made its way around the western part of the hill.

A path left this footpath and made its way up through gorse to a flat bedded grazing field with the encircling upper limestone on view just below the summit.  As the sun and cloud cast light and shade upon the hill I made my way to the far corner of the field where I imagined a path should be placed making its way up through the terraced limestone to the summit plateau.

Not surprisingly there was a path and it did as expected and strode out up through the limestone terrace to a grassed upper section where the trig pillar is placed.  However, a mound of blackthorn grew nearby and on-site visits had reported that a rock close to the edge of the blackthorn to be the high point of the hill, I found the rock but positioning the Trimble on it proved a little problematic as I wanted to give it elevation above its immediate nasty prickly surrounds, and using my rucksack as a makeshift tripod whilst balancing it on the narrow rock overlooking blackthorn hell was not the easiest.  However, somehow it remained in situ with the Trimble placed on top of it for the allocated ten minutes of data collection.

Gathering data at the summit of Bwrdd Arthur

The Trimble set-up position at the summit of Bwrdd Arthur

Once the Trimble had gathered and stored its allotted data I quickly closed it down, took a few photos and thankfully then packed it away.  It was now only a short walk retracing my inward route back to my awaiting car.



Survey Result:



Bwrdd Arthur 

Summit Height:  164.7m (converted to OSGM15)

Summit Grid Reference:  SH 58577 81284

Bwlch Height:  27.0m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SH 51562 77533 (LIDAR)

Drop:  137.8m (Trimble summit and LIDAR bwlch)

Dominance:  83.62% (Trimble summit and LIDAR bwlch)










Thursday, 21 March 2019

Mapping Mountains – Significant Height Revisions – 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – the Dominant Hills of Wales


Llys y Gwynt (SH 779 728)

There has been a Significant Height Revision to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height and its location, and the drop of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis, and a subsequent summit survey with the Trimble GeoXH 6000, both conducted by Myrddyn Phillips with the latter taking place on the 10th October 2018.

Llys y Gwynt (SH 779 728)

The criteria for the two lists that this height revision applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales – Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips with the Introduction to the start of the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015.

The name of the hill is Llys y Gwynt, and it is adjoined to the Carneddau group of hills, which are situated in the north-western part of North Wales (Region A, Sub-Region A1), and is positioned with the B5106 to its west, the B5279 to its south and the Afon Conwy (River Conwy) to its east, and has the town of Conwy to its north.

When interpolated heights and drop values were added to the original Welsh 100m P30 list that was published on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website, this hill was listed with an estimated c 116m summit height based on interpolation of its uppermost 110m contour ring that appears on the Ordnance Survey 1:50,000 Landranger and 1:25,000 Explorer map.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

However, it was not until LIDAR became available that the details for this hill could be accurately re-assessed.  The LIDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) technique produced highly accurate height data that is now freely available for much of England and Wales.  LIDAR analysis for this hill was closely followed by the survey of its summit with the Trimble GeoXH 6000. 

LIDAR image of Llys y Gwynt

The summit height produced by the Trimble GeoXH 6000 survey is 120.6m,  this is a substantial revision when compared to some revised heights, and it comes within the parameters of the Significant Height Revisions used within this page heading, these parameters are:

The term Significant Height Revisions applies to any listed hill whose interpolated height and Ordnance Survey or Harvey map summit spot height has a 2m or more discrepancy when compared to the survey result produced by the Trimble GeoXH 6000 or analysis of data produced via LIDAR, also included are hills whose summit map data is missing an uppermost ring contour when compared to the data produced by the Trimble or by LIDAR analysis.  As heights on different scaled Ordnance Survey maps are not consistent the height given on the 1:25,000 Explorer map is being prioritised in favour of the 1:50,000 Landranger map for detailing these revisions.

Therefore, this hill’s new listed summit height is 120.6m and this was produced by surveying with the Trimble GeoXH 6000, this is 4.6m higher than its previously listed height of c 116m which was based on interpolation of its uppermost 110m ring contour that appears on the Ordnance Survey 1:50,000 Landranger and 1:25,000 Explorer map, however this new height is in accordance with the 5m contouring on OS Maps.

Extract from OSMaps showing an uppermost 120m ring contour

ills of Wales, and are reproduced below@

The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Carneddau

Name:  Llys y Gwynt

OS 1:50,000 map:  115

Summit Height (New height):  120.6m (converted to OSGM15)

Summit Grid Reference:  SH 77982 72884  

Bwlch Height:  50.7m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SH 76137 71943 (LIDAR)

Drop:  70.0m (Trimble summit and LIDAR bwlch)

Dominance:  58.00% (Trimble summit and LIDAR bwlch)



Myrddyn Phillips (March 2019)





Wednesday, 20 March 2019

Mapping Mountains – Significant Name Changes – 100m Twmpau


Cefn Coed (SN 695 258)

There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau, with the summit height and its location, and the drop of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR summit image of Cefn Coed (SN 695 258)

The criteria for the list that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

The hill is adjoined to the Y Mynydd Du group of hills, which are situated in the north-western part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C1), and it is encircled by minor roads with the Afon Tywi (River Towy) and the A40 road to its north-west and the Afon Sawdde and the A4069 road to its north-east, and has the village of Llangadog towards the north north-east.

The hill originally appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under a partly invented and transposed name of Long Wood Top, with an accompanying note stating; Name from wood to the North. 


Long Wood Top
131m
146/160
12
Trig pillar. Name from wood to the North.


During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put Pen, Bryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance transpose the name of a wood and add the word Top to it.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historic documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

As the summit of this hill comprises bounded land the details for it were examined on the Tithe map.  The term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in Wales.

Extract from the Tithe map

The enclosed land where the summit of this hill is situated is given the number 668 on the Tithe map, this can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  The apportionments for this area have not yet been transcribed, however the land where the summit of this hill is situated is named on the Tithe map as Cefen [sic] Coed, and according to the Ordnance Survey series of Six-Inch maps this is also the name of the adjacent farm which is situated to the north north-east of this hill’s summit and which is now named as Bryn-Towy on contemporary maps.

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau is Cefn Coed, and this name was derived from the Tithe map.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Y Mynydd Du

Name:  Cefn Coed

Previously Listed Name:  Long Wood Top
  
OS 1:50,000 map:  146, 160

Summit Height:  130.9m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  SN 69518 25873 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  88.1m (LIDAR, natural bwlch)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SN 70700 25824 (LIDAR, natural bwlch)
 
Drop:  42.8m (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (March 2019)






Tuesday, 19 March 2019

Mapping Mountains – Significant Name Changes – 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales



Llys y Gwynt (SH 779 728)

There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height and its location, and the drop of the hill initially confirmed by LIDAR analysis and its summit height subsequently confirmed by a Trimble GeoXH 6000 survey, both conducted by Myrddyn Phillips with the latter taking place on the 10th October 2018.

Llys y Gwynt (SH 779 728)

The criteria for the two lists that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales – Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips with the Introduction to the start of the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015.

The hill is adjoined to the Carneddau group of hills, which are situated in the north-western part of North Wales (Region A, Sub-Region A1), and is positioned with the B5106 to its west, the B5279 to its south and the Afon Conwy (River Conwy) to its east, and has the town of Conwy to its north.

The hill originally appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the transposed name of Tan-y-bryn, with an accompanying note stating; Name from buildings to the West.



Tan-y-bryn
110c
115
17
Name from buildings to the West

 

During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put Pen, Bryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance transpose the name of a farm and use it for that of the hill.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historic documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

As the summit of this hill comprises bounded land the details for it were examined on the Tithe map.  The term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in Wales.

Extract from the Tithe map

The enclosed land where the summit of this hill is situated is given the number 222 on the Tithe map, this can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  The land where the summit of this hill is situated is named as Llys y Gwynt in the apportionments, with the details on the Tithe map appearing in the parish of Caerhun and in the county named as Caernarvonshire [sic].

Extract from the apportionments

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trehol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Llys y Gwynt, and this name was derived from the Tithe map.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Carneddau

Name:  Llys y Gwynt

Previously Listed Name:  Tan-y-bryn 
  
OS 1:50,000 map:  115

Summit Height:  120.6m (converted to OSGM15)

Summit Grid Reference:  SH 77982 72884

Bwlch Height:  50.7m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SH 76137 71943 (LIDAR) 

Drop:  70.0m (Trimble summit and LIDAR bwlch)

Dominance:  58.00% (Trimble summit and LIDAR bwlch)



For details on the summit survey of this hill

Myrddyn Phillips (March 2019)