Thursday, 31 October 2019

Mapping Mountains – Significant Name Changes – Y Pedwarau


Pen y Ffridd Glap (SH 728 339)

There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the Y Pedwarau – The 400m Hills of Wales, with the summit height and its position taken from data on the Harvey 1:40,000 British Mountain Map and the drop ascertained from a basic levelling survey conducted by Myrddyn Phillips on the 11th July 2003.

The criteria for the list that this name change applies to are:

Y PedwarauThe 400m Hills of Wales.  Welsh hills at or above 400m and below 500m in height with 30m minimum drop, accompanying the main Y Pedwarau list are five categories of sub hills, with this hill being listed in the 400m Sub-Pedwar category.  The criteria for 400m Sub-Pedwar status being all Welsh hills at or above 400m and below 500m in height that have 20m or more and below 30m of drop.  The list is co-authored by Myrddyn Phillips and Aled Williams and is published on Mapping Mountains in Google Doc format.

The hill is adjoined to the Arenig group of hills, which are situated in the south-western part of North Wales (Region A, Sub-Region A3), and it is positioned with the A4212 road and the Afon Prysor to its north and the A470 road to its west, and has the village of Trawsfynydd towards the north-west.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

The hill appeared in the original Welsh 400m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the name of Ffridd Wen, which is a name that appears beside the summit of this hill on contemporary Ordnance Survey maps.  The name of Ffridd Wen is also the name this hill was listed by in the 1st edition of the Y Pedwarau published by Europeaklist in May 2013.


Ffridd Wen
410c
124
18
MP survey: 26.7m / 87.5'


Since publication of the 1st edition of Y Pedwarau the Tithe maps for Wales have become available online and as this hill comprises bounded land these were consulted.  The term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in Wales.

Extract from the Tithe map

The enclosed land where the summit of this hill is situated is given the number 1330 on the Tithe map, this can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  The land where the summit of this hill is situated is named as Ffridd Glap in the apportionments, with the details on the Tithe map appearing in the parish of Trawsfynydd and in the county named as Merioneth.

Extract from the apportionments

Importantly the Tithe map names the bounded land to the south and below the highest ffridd as Ffridd Wen, with the contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map and the series of Ordnance Survey Six-Inch maps naming land that would comprise the summit as Pen y Ffridd Glap.

Extract from the Tithe map showing detail on the Ordnance Survey series of Six-Inch maps

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the Y Pedwarau – The 400m Hills of Wales is Pen y Ffridd Glap, and this was derived from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map and the series of Ordnance Survey Six-Inch maps with the name of the bounded land substantiated by the Tithe map.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Arenig

Name:  Pen y Ffridd Glap

Previously Listed Name:  Ffridd Wen

OS 1:50,000 map:  124

Summit Height:  417m (Harvey 1:40,000 British Mountain Map)

Summit Grid Reference:  SH 72800 33956 (spot height)

Bwlch Height:  390m (based on drop value)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SH 73041 33734 (interpolation)

Drop:  27m (basic levelling survey)


Myrddyn Phillips and Aled Williams (October 2019)








Wednesday, 30 October 2019

Mapping Mountains – Significant Name Changes – 30-99m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales


Ash Tip (ST 031 663)

There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is now listed in the 30-99m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop, dominance and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Ash Tip (ST 031 663)

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

30-99m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 30m and below 100m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 30-99m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 30m and below 100m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales - Welsh P30 hills whose prominence  equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height, with the Introduction to the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015.

The hill is adjoined to the Bro Morgannwg group of hills, which are situated in the southern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C2), and it forms a part of landscaped ground that once made up the Aberthaw quarry and lime works, and it is positioned with the B4265 road to its north, and has the small community of Sain Tathan (St Athan) towards the north-west.

When the original 30-99m height band of Welsh P30 hills were published on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website this hill was not included in either the main P30 list or the Hills to be surveyed sub list, as contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:50,000 Landranger and 1:25,000 Explorer maps of the day showed the area that now makes up this hill as having no ring contours of note.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

This area was re-examined when the OS Maps website became available online.  This is the replacement for OS Get-a-map and has contours at 5m intervals and for the majority of land comprising old mine workings it shows present day contours, as opposed to the blank space showed on the counterparts of the 1:50,000 Landranger and 1:25,000 Explorer maps.

Extract from the OS Maps website

However, it was not until LIDAR became available that the details for this hill could be accurately re-assessed.  The LIDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) technique produced highly accurate height data that is now freely available for much of England and Wales. 

With contouring on the OS Maps website indicating this hill to now have over 30m of drop and with this confirmed by LIDAR analysis I made local enquiries and contacted Richard Coleman who runs the Blue Anchor Inn; the local pub in East Aberthaw.  Richard is aged 31 and told me that his family have run this pub since 1941 and the hill I was interested in is known locally as the Ash Tip.

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 30-99m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Ash Tip, and this was derived from local enquiry.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Bro Morgannwg

Name:  Ash Tip

Previously Listed Name:  not previously listed
 
OS 1:50,000 map:  170

Summit Height:  50.0m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  ST 03170 66338 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  12.4m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  ST 03298 66735 (LIDAR)

Drop:  37.6m (LIDAR)

Dominance:  75.20%


Myrddyn Phillips (October 2019)






Tuesday, 29 October 2019

Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau


100m Twmpau – Significant Name Changes

The 100m Twmpau (thirty welsh metre prominences and upward) are the Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height that have a minimum drop of 30m.  Accompanying the main P30 list is a sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the qualification to this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop.

The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips and the posts that have appeared on Mapping Mountains detailing the significant name changes to the main P30 list and the sub list appear below presented chronologically in receding order.









Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

Cae Cefn (ST 059 748) - 57th significant name change

Significant Height Revisions post for Cae Cefn

Hill Reclassifications post for Cae Cefn


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that was listed in the 100m Twmpau, with the summit height and its location confirmed by a Leica GS15 survey conducted by John Barnard, Graham Jackson and Myrddyn Phillips which took place on the 4th November 2013, and the bwlch height and its location, the drop and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

The Leica GS15 gathering data at the summit of Cae Cefn

The criteria for the list that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

LIDAR image of Cae Cefn (ST 059 748)

The hill is adjoined to the Bro Morgannwg group of hills, which are situated in the southern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C2), and it is positioned with the A48 road to its south-east and minor roads to its west, north and east, has the city of Caerdydd (Cardiff) towards the east and the town of Y Bont-faen (Cowbridge) to the west.

The hill appeared in the original Welsh 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the transposed name of Lillypot, without any accompanying note implying that I didn’t even realise that this name was not that of the hill.


Lillypot
140m
170
151
Clem/Yeaman substituting Pan y Lladron at 037740.


During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put PenBryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance transpose the name of what I later realised is that of a farm and use it for the hill.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historic documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

Extract from the Ordnance Survey Vector Map Local hosted on the Geograph website

As this hill comprises bounded land the Tithe map was consulted.  The term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in Wales.

Extract from the Tithe map

The enclosed land where the summit of this hill is situated is given the number 832 on the Tithe map, this can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  The land where the summit of this hill is situated is named as Cae Cefn in the apportionments, with the details on the Tithe map appearing in the parish of Pendoylan and in the county named as Glamorgan.

Extract from the apportionments

Therefore, the name this hill is documented by and would have been listed in the 100m Twmpau if its drop was sufficient is Cae Cefn, and this was derived from the Tithe map.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Bro Morgannwg

Name:  Cae Cefn

Previously Listed Name:  Lillypot

OS 1:50,000 map:  170

Summit Height:  136.2m (Leica GS15)

Summit Grid Reference:  ST 05910 74886 (Leica GS15)

Bwlch Height:  116.25m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  ST 04273 74542 (LIDAR)

Drop:  19.9m (Leica GS15 summit and LIDAR bwlch)


Myrddyn Phillips (October 2019)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

The Meadow (ST 103 747) - 56th significant name change


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau, with the summit height and position confirmed by a Leica GS15 survey conducted by John Barnard, Graham Jackson and Myrddyn Phillips which took place on the 5th November 2013, and the bwlch height and position, and hence the drop and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR summit image of The Meadow (ST 103 747)

The criteria for the list that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

The hill is adjoined to the Bro Morgannwg group of hills, which are situated in the southern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C2), and it has the A4232 road to its north-east and the A48 road to its south, and has the city of Caerdydd (Cardiff) towards the east north-east and the town of Y Bont-faen (Cowbridge) to the west.

Determining the summit position of The Meadow

The hill originally appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the name of St Lythans Down, which an accompanying note stating; Name from buildings to the South-East.


St. Lythans Down
135c
171
151
Name from buildings to the South-East.


During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put PenBryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance transpose the name of a hamlet for that of the hill.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historic documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

During the survey of this hill’s summit I was told that the upper part of the hill is now used as a natural burial site, and when assessing land towards the west of what proved to be the hill’s high point I picked up an information leaflet giving detail to the natural burial meadow.  This leaflet names the upper part of the hill as The Meadow with online research using the extended name of Cardiff & The Vale Natural Burial Meadow.  The burial meadow is operated by Leedam Natural Heritage and information within the leaflet and on this company’s website names the part of the hill where the summit is situated as the Beech.  

The information leaflet

The area comprising the summit is known as the Beech

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau is The Meadow, and this name was derived from information at hand whilst surveying the hill’s summit, and subsequent online research, with the caveat that the summit area is also known as the Beech. 


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Bro Morgannwg

Name:  The Meadow

Previously Listed Name:  St Lythans Down 

OS 1:50,000 map:  171

Summit Height:  135.2m (Leica GS15 and LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  ST 10306 74795 (Leica GS15)

Bwlch Height:  103.1m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  ST 07990 74543 (LIDAR) 

Drop:  32.1m (Leica GS15 and LIDAR summit, and LIDAR bwlch)


Myrddyn Phillips (October 2019)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

Wenvoe Quarry (ST 131 741) - 55th significant name change

Significant Height Revisions post for Wenvoe Quarry

Summit Relocations post for Wenvoe Quarry


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height and its position confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR summit image of Wenvoe Quarry (ST 131 741)

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales – Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips with the Introduction to the start of the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015.

The hill is adjoined to the Bro Morgannwg group of hills, which are situated in the southern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C2), and it is positioned with a number of A roads encircling it with the A4232 to its north and east, the A4050 to its west and the A4055 further to its south-east, and has the city of Caerdydd (Cardiff) towards the north-east.
  
The hill originally appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under a partly transposed and invented name of Wenvoe Top, with an accompanying note stating; Name from quarry at summit. 


Wenvoe Top
115c
171
151
Name from quarry at summit


During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put PenBryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance transpose the name of a quarry and add the word Top to it.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historic documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

The ground comprising the summit of this hill is a part of the Wenvoe Quarry and for listing purposes this name is considered appropriate for that of the hill.  This name appears in its plural form on contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer maps.

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Wenvoe Quarry, and this was derived from contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer maps and online research which names the quarry in a singular and not necessarily plural form.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Bro Morgannwg

Name:  Wenvoe Quarry

Previously Listed Name:  Wenvoe Top

OS 1:50,000 map:  171

Summit Height:  123.4m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  ST 13189 74189 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  66m (spot height)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  ST 12669 74393 (spot height) 

Drop:  57m (LIDAR summit and spot height bwlch)

Dominance:  46.51% (LIDAR summit and spot height bwlch)


Myrddyn Phillips (October 2019)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

Cock Hill (ST 153 750) - 54th significant name change

Summit Relocations post for Cock Hill


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Cock Hill (ST 153 750)

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales – Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips with the Introduction to the start of the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015.

The hill is adjoined to the Bro Morgannwg group of hills, which are situated in the southern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C2), and it has the A4232 road to its north and east and a minor road towards its south, and has the city of Caerdydd (Cardiff) towards the north-east.

The hill originally appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the name of Leckwith Hill, which is a name given a farm positioned to the south-east of the summit on contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer maps, and with an accompanying note stating; aka Cock Hill.


Leckwith Hill
115c
171
151
aka Cock Hill.


During my early hill listing I paid little regard to name placement on the map, or the meaning of names and to what feature the name was appropriately applied to.  Therefore I prioritised names for listing purposes that I now understand are either inappropriate or where another name is viewed as being more appropriate.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

Since publication of these P30 lists on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website there have been a number of Ordnance Survey maps made available online, some of these are historic such as the series of Six-Inch maps on the National Library of Scotland website, whilst others are current and digitally updated such as the Vector Map Local hosted on the Geograph website, and which is entitled the Interactive Coverage Map.  In the case of this hill it is the series of Ordnance Survey Six-Inch maps that show the placement of the name Cock Hill to be prioritised indicating that it is applicable to the whole area of the hill, whilst that of Leckwith Hill is applicable to a farm positioned to the south-east of the summit.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey series of Six-Inch maps

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Cock Hill, and the confirmation of the placement of this name was derived from the series of Ordnance Survey Six-Inch maps. 


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Bro Morgannwg

Name:  Cock Hill

Previously Listed Name:  Leckwith Hill 

OS 1:50,000 map:  171

Summit Height:  115.6m (LIDAR, natural summit)

Summit Grid Reference:  ST 15303 75089 (LIDAR, natural summit)

Bwlch Height:  46.3m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  ST 13392 74714 (LIDAR) 

Drop:  69.3m (LIDAR)

Dominance:  59.92% (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (September 2019)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

Hensol Park (ST 040 790) - 53rd significant name change


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Hensol Park (ST 040 790)

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales – Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips with the Introduction to the start of the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015.

The hill is adjoined to the Bro Morgannwg group of hills, which are situated in the southern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C2), and it has a number of minor roads encircling it with the M4 motorway further north and the A4222 road further west, and has the town of Y Bont-faen (Cowbridge) towards the south-west and the town of Llantrisant towards the north.

The hill originally appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the name of Kennel Grove, which is a name that appears near the summit of the hill on contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer maps.


Kennel Grove
    109m
    ST040791
    170
151


During my early hill listing I paid little regard to name placement on the map, or the meaning of names and to what feature the name was appropriately applied to.  Therefore I prioritised names for listing purposes that I now understand are either inappropriate or where another name is viewed as being more appropriate.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

Since publication of these P30 lists on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website there have been a number of Ordnance Survey maps made available online, some of these are historic such as the series of Six-Inch maps on the National Library of Scotland website, whilst others are current and digitally updated such as the Vector Map Local hosted on the Geograph website, and which is entitled the Interactive Coverage Map.  In the case of this hill it is the series of Ordnance Survey Six-Inch maps that show the placement of the name Hensol Park to take in the whole area of the hill, whilst that of Kennel Grove is just applicable to the plantation next to, but not at the summit of the hill.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey series of Six-Inch maps

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Hensol Park, and the confirmation of the placement of this name was derived from the series of Ordnance Survey Six-Inch maps. 


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Bro Morgannwg

Name:  Hensol Park

Previously Listed Name:  Kennel Grove

OS 1:50,000 map:  170

Summit Height:  108.8m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  ST 04027 79085 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  57.4m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  ST 03531 78660 (LIDAR)

Drop:  51.4m (LIDAR)

Dominance:  47.25% (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (September 2019)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

Bryn (ST 008 824) - 52nd significant name change


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Bryn (ST 008 824)

The criteria for the list that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

The hill is adjoined to the Bro Morgannwg group of hills, which are situated in the southern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C2), and it is encircled by roads with the A473 to its north and minor roads to its west and south, with the M4 motorway further to the south, and has the small community of Llanharan towards its north-west.

The hill originally appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the partly invented and transposed name of Pen Coed-y-bryn, with an accompanying note stating; Name from wood to the South-West.



Pen Coed-y-bryn
120c
170
151
Name from wood to the South-West



During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put PenBryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance transpose the name of a wood and add the word Pen to it.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historic documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

As this hill comprises bounded land the Tithe map was consulted.  The term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in Wales.

Extract from the Tithe map

The enclosed land where the summit of this hill is situated is given the number 215 on the Tithe map, this can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  The land where the summit of this hill is situated is named as Brynn & Nursery in the apportionments, with the details on the Tithe map appearing in the parish of LLanharran [sic] and in the county named as Glamorgan.

Extract from the apportionments

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau is Bryn, and this was derived from the Tithe map.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Bro Morgannwg

Name:  Bryn

Previously Listed Name:  Pen Coed-y-bryn 

OS 1:50,000 map:  170

Summit Height:  123.7m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  ST 00857 82495 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  83.5m (LIDAR, natural bwlch)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  ST 00667 80714 (LIDAR, natural bwlch) 

Drop:  40.2m (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (September 2019)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

Twyn y Cryn (SO 325 008) - 51st significant name change

Hill Reclassifications post for Twyn y Cryn

Summit Relocations post for Twyn y Cryn


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Twyn y Cryn (SO 325 008)

The criteria for the list that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

The hill is adjoined to the Cymoedd Gwent group of hills, which are situated in the eastern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C2), and it is positioned above the A4042 road to the west and the A472 road to the north, and has the town of Pont-y-pŵl (Pontypool) towards its west and Brynbuga (Usk) towards its east.

The hill originally appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under a transposed and also partly invented and transposed name of Maes-mawr / Pen Twyn y Cryn, with an accompanying note stating; Names from buildings to the South-West and wood to the North-West.  With these two names relating to what was considered the twin topped nature of this hill.


Maes-mawr / Pen Twyn y Cryn
140c
171
152
Names from buildings to the South West & wood to the North-West.



During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put PenBryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance transpose the name of a farm and also that of a wood and prefix the latter with the word Pen.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historic documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

The summit of this hill has now been confirmed as that adjoined to Twyn y Cryn, and as this name is recorded on contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer maps and is appropriate for that of the hill there is no reason why it should be prefixed with an invented word.

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau is Twyn y Cryn, and this was derived from contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer maps.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Cymoedd Gwent

Name:  Twyn y Cryn

Previously Listed Name:  Maes-mawr / Pen Twyn y Cryn 

OS 1:50,000 map:  171

Summit Height:  148.1m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  SO 32563 00887 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  112.9m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SO 32391 01152 (LIDAR) 

Drop:  35.3m (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (September 2019)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

The Beech (ST 346 974) - 50th significant name change

Summit Relocations post for The Beech


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of The Beech (ST 346 974)

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales – Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips with the Introduction to the start of the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015.

The hill is adjoined to the Cymoedd Gwent group of hills, which are situated in the eastern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C2), and it has a number of A roads encircling it with the A4042 to its west, the A472 to its north, the A449 to its east and the M4 motorway towards its south, and has the town of Brynbuga (Usk) towards its north-east.

The hill originally appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the name of Craig y Saeson, which is a name that appears to the north-east of this hill’s summit on contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer maps.



Craig y Saeson
184m
171
152


During my early hill listing I paid little regard to name placement on the map, or the meaning of names and to what feature the name was appropriately applied to.  Therefore I prioritised names for listing purposes that I now understand are either inappropriate or where another name is viewed as being more appropriate, and as this hill comprises bounded land the Tithe map was consulted and this confirms that the name Craig y Saeson is applicable to enclosed land to the north-east of this hill’s summit and not to the summit area of this hill or the hill itself.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

Since publication of these P30 lists on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website there have been a number of Ordnance Survey maps made available online, some of these are historic such as the series of Six-Inch maps on the National Library of Scotland website, whilst others are current and digitally updated such as the Vector Map Local hosted on the Geograph website, and which is entitled the Interactive Coverage Map.  In the case of this hill it is the series of Ordnance Survey Six-Inch maps that record the name of The Beech for the land at or adjacent to where the summit of this hill is situated.

Extract from the series of Ordnance Survey Six-Inch maps

Therefore the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is The Beech, and this was derived from the series of Ordnance Survey Six-Inch maps. 


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Cymoedd Gwent

Name:  The Beech

Previously Listed Name:  Craig y Saeson 

OS 1:50,000 map:  171

Summit Height:  185.4m (LIDAR, natural summit)

Summit Grid Reference:  ST 34645 97459 (LIDAR, natural summit)

Bwlch Height:  89.0m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  ST 34479 98091 (LIDAR)

Drop:  96.4m (LIDAR)

Dominance:  51.98% (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (August 2019)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

Tregrug (ST 363 974) - 49th significant name change


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Tregrug (ST 363 974)

The criteria for the list that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100 Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

The hill is adjoined to the Cymoedd Gwent group of hills, which are situated in the eastern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C2), and it is encircled by minor roads with the Afon Wysg (River Usk) and the A449 road further to the east, and has the town of Brynbuga (Usk) towards its north north-east.

The hill originally appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the name of Llangibby Castle, which is a name that appears near the summit of this hill on contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer maps.


Llangibby Castle
110c
171
152


During my early hill listing I paid little regard to name placement on the map, or the meaning of names and to what feature the name was appropriately applied to.  Therefore I prioritised names for listing purposes that I now understand are either inappropriate or where another name is viewed as being more appropriate, and as the name of Llangibby Castle refers to an inanimate object I consulted historic Ordnance Survey maps for a more appropriate Welsh name for this hill.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

Since publication of these P30 lists on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website there have been a number of Ordnance Survey maps made available online, some of these are historical such as the series of Six-Inch maps on the National Library of Scotland website, whilst others are current and digitally updated such as the Vector Map Local hosted on the Geograph website, and which is entitled the Interactive Coverage Map.  In the case of this hill it is the series of Ordnance Survey Six-Inch maps that record the name of Tregrug, which online research substantiates as an alternate name that can be used for this hill.

Extract from the series of Ordnance Survey Six-Inch maps

Therefore the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau is Tregrug, and this was derived from the series of Ordnance Survey Six-Inch maps and substantiated by online research. 


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Cymoedd Gwent

Name:  Tregrug

Previously Listed Name:  Llangibby Castle

OS 1:50,000 map:  171

Summit Height:  109.9m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  ST 36359 97425 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  77.1m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  ST 36147 97477 (LIDAR) 

Drop:  32.8m (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (August 2019)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

Coed Cae Maen (ST 362 998) - 48th significant name change


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Coed Cae Maen (ST 362 998)

The criteria for the list that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

The hill is adjoined to the Cymoedd Gwent group of hills, which are situated in the eastern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C2), and it is encircled by minor roads with the A472 road further to its north and the A449 road further to its east, and has the town of Brynbuga (Usk) towards its north-east.

The hill originally appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the partly invented and transposed name of Pen Cae-maen Wood, with an accompanying note stating; Name from wood to the East.



Pen Cae-maen Wood
100c
171
152
Name from wood to the East


  
During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put PenBryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance transpose the name of a wood and add the word Pen to it.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historic documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

As the name of Cae-maen Wood appears adjacent to this hill’s summit on contemporary Ordnance Survey maps the Tithe map was consulted.  The term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in Wales.

Extract from the Tithe map

The enclosed land where the summit of this hill is situated is given the number 431 on the Tithe map, this can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  The land where the summit of this hill is situated is named as Coed Cae Main in the apportionments, with the details on the Tithe map appearing in the parish of LLanbaddock [sic] and in the county named as Monmouth.

Extract from the apportionments

The intricacies of language and prioritising one in favour of another for listing a hill is fraught with complication, with originating Cymraeg names being anglicised and also originating English names being cymricised, examples such as these are more common in border country and especially so for anglicised forms.  There is no steadfast rule that fits all, but as a standard a name that has its origins in the Welsh language and where this is substantiated by either historic documentation and / or contemporary usage should be prioritised in favour of a contemporary anglicised or English version of the name.  Likewise, if a name exists where an element of it is in English and if this name applies to a hill that is situated in a Welsh speaking part of Wales it is standard practice to use a full Welsh term for the name.

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau is Coed Cae Maen, and this was derived from the Tithe map with contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer maps using a mixed language version of this name.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Cymoedd Gwent

Name:  Coed Cae Maen

Previously Listed Name:  Pen Cae-maen Wood

OS 1:50,000 map:  171

Summit Height:  101.0m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  ST 36203 99841 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  67.6m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  ST 35963 99882 (LIDAR) 

Drop:  33.1m (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (August 2019)






Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

Coed Duon (SO 364 008) - 47th significant name change


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Coed Duon (SO 364 008)

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales – Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips with the Introduction to the start of the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015.

The hill is adjoined to the Cymoedd Gwent group of hills, which are situated in the eastern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C2), and it is positioned above the A472 road and the Afon Wysg (River Usk) which are to its north-east, and has the town of Brynbuga (Usk) towards its east.

The hill originally appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under a partly invented and transposed name of Pen Coed-duon, with an accompanying note stating; Name from wood to the North.



Pen Coed-duon
115m
171
152
Name from wood to the North



During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put PenBryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance transpose the name of a wood and prefix it with the word Pen.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historic documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

The ground comprising the wood known as Coed Duon takes in a relatively thin strip of land, with the high point of the hill close to its edge to its south.  As the enclosed field where the summit is situated is not named on the Tithe map it is appropriate to use the main named feature of this hill as its name for listing purposes, and this name is Coed Duon.

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Coed Duon, and this was derived from contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:50,000 Landranger and 1:25,000 Explorer maps.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Cymoedd Gwent

Name:  Coed Duon

Previously Listed Name:  Pen Coed-duon 

OS 1:50,000 map:  171

Summit Height:  114.8m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  SO 36405 00817 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  61.6m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SO 34989 00614 (LIDAR)

Drop:  53.2m (LIDAR)

Dominance:  46.36% (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (August 2019)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

Woodlake Park (ST 343 997) - 46th significant name change

Summit Relocations post for Woodlake Park

Significant Height Revisions post for Woodlake Park


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Woodlake Park (ST 343 997)

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales – Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips with the Introduction to the start of the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015.

The hill is adjoined to the Cymoedd Gwent group of hills, which are situated in the eastern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C2), and it is positioned above the Llandegfedd Reservoir which is to its west, and has the town of Pont-y-pŵl (Pontypool) towards its west and Brynbuga (Usk) towards its east.

The hill originally appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under a partly invented and transposed name of Pen Coed Canol, with an accompanying note stating; Name from wood to the East.



Pen Coed Canol
147m
171
152
Name from wood to the East.



During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put PenBryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance transpose the name of a near wood and prefix it with the word Pen.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historic documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

The summit of this hill is situated in the grounds of a golf course and this is named on contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 maps as Woodlake Park, and for listing purpose this is an appropriate name to use for this hill.

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Woodlake Park, and this was derived from the contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Cymoedd Gwent

Name:  Woodlake Park

Previously Listed Name:  Pen Coed Canol

OS 1:50,000 map:  171

Summit Height:  150.7m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  ST 34335 99793 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  91.5m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SO 33405 01033 (LIDAR)

Drop:  59.3m (LIDAR)

Dominance:  39.31% (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (August 2019)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

Cae Berrog (ST 335 945) - 45th significant name change


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Cae Berrog (ST 335 945)

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales – Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips with the Introduction to the start of the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015.

The hill is adjoined to the Cymoedd Gwent group of hills, which are situated in the eastern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C2), and it is encircled by minor roads beyond which is the A4042 road to its west, and has the city of Casnewydd-ar-Wysg (Newport) towards the south south-west.

The hill originally appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the transposed and invented name of Pen Lan-Sôr Wood, with an accompanying note stating; Name from wood to the East.



Pen Lan-Sor Wood
106m
171
152
Name from wood to the East



During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put PenBryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance transpose the name of a wood and add the word Pen to it.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historic documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

As the land taking in the summit of this hill is bounded the Tithe map was consulted.  The term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in Wales.

Extract from the Tithe map

The enclosed land where the summit of this hill is situated is given the number 761 on the Tithe map, this can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  The land where the summit of this hill is situated is named as Cae Cerrog (Cae Berrog as extensively discussed on the Enwau Lleoedd (Welsh place-names) Facebook page) in the apportionments, with the details on the Tithe map appearing in the parish of LLangatt0ck juxta Caerleon [sic] and in the county named as Monmouth.

Extract from the apportionments

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Cae Berrog, and this was derived from the Tithe map.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Cymoedd Gwent

Name:  Cae Berrog

Previously Listed Name:  Pen Lan-Sôr Wood

OS 1:50,000 map:  171

Summit Height:  105.3m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  ST 33529 94569 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  66.0m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  ST 33047 95295 (LIDAR) 

Drop:  39.3m (LIDAR)

Dominance:  37.34% (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (August 2019)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

Lodge Wood (ST 322 912) - 44th significant name change


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

Lodge Wood (ST 322 912)

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales – Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips with the Introduction to the start of the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015.

The hill is adjoined to the Cymoedd Gwent group of hills, which are situated in the eastern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C2), and it has the A4042 road to its west, the M4 motorway to its south and the B4236 road to its east and north, and has the city of Casnewydd-ar-Wysg (Newport) to the south.

The hill originally appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the partly invented name of Lodge Wood Top, with an accompanying note stating; Name from wood to the North.



Lodge Wood Top
119m
171
152
Name from wood to the North.


  
During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put PenBryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance transpose the name of a wood and add the word Top to it.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historic documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

As the name of Lodge Wood appears adjacent to this hill’s summit on contemporary Ordnance Survey maps the Tithe map was consulted.  The term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in Wales.

Extract from the Tithe map

The enclosed land where the summit of this hill is situated is given the number 358 on the Tithe map, this can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  The land where the summit of this hill is situated is named as The Lodge Wood in the apportionments, with the details on the Tithe map appearing in the parish of LLangatt0ck juxta Caerleon [sic] and in the county named as Monmouth.

Extract from the apportionments

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Lodge Wood, and this was derived from contemporary Ordnance Survey maps and substantiated by the Tithe map.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Cymoedd Gwent

Name:  Lodge Wood

Previously Listed Name:  Lodge Wood Top

OS 1:50,000 map:  171

Summit Height:  119.4m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  ST 32218 91288 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  45.9m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  ST 29667 92988 (LIDAR) 

Drop:  73.5m (LIDAR)

Dominance:  61.55% (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (August 2019)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

The Mount (ST 258 848) - 43rd significant name change

Summit Relocations post for The Mount

Significant Height Revisions post for The Mount


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height derived from the OS Trig Database and the bwlch height derived from interpolation of 5m contouring.

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales – Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips with the Introduction to the start of the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015.

The hill is adjoined to the Cymoedd Gwent group of hills, which are situated in the eastern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C2), and it has minor roads to its north-west and north-east and the M4 motorway to its south, and is positioned between the city of Caerdydd (Cardiff) to the south-west and Casnewydd-ar-Wysg (Newport) to the north-east.

The hill originally appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under a transposed name of Pen-y-lan, with an accompanying note stating; Name from buildings to the North-East.


Pen-y-lan
124m
171
152
Name from buildings to the North-East.



During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put PenBryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance transpose the name of a farm.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historic documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

Since publication of these P30 lists on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website there have been a number of Ordnance Survey maps made available online, some of these are historical such as the series of Six-Inch maps on the National Library of Scotland website, whilst others are current and digitally updated such as the Vector Map Local hosted on the Geograph website, and which is entitled the Interactive Coverage Map.  The originally listed summit position of this hill has been relocated and it is the relocated summit that Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer maps name as The Mount and this name is substantiated from the Ordnance Survey series of Six-Inch maps.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey series of Six-Inch maps

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is The Mount, and this was derived from the contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map and substantiated by the Ordnance Survey series of Six-Inch maps.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Cymoedd Gwent

Name:  The Mount

Previously Listed Name:  Pen-y-lan 

OS 1:50,000 map:  171

Summit Height:  127m

Summit Grid Reference:  ST 25868 84839

Bwlch Height:  c 66m

Bwlch Grid Reference:  ST 24800 87551 

Drop:  c 61m

Dominance:  48.03%


Myrddyn Phillips (August 2019)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

Bryn Bach (SS 903 875) - 42nd significant name change

Hill Reclassifications post for Bryn Bach

Significant Height Revisions post for Bryn Bach

Summit Relocations post for Bryn Bach


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Bryn Bach

The criteria for the list that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

The hill is adjoined to the Cymoedd Morgannwg group of hills, which are situated in the central part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C2), and is positioned with the A4063 road and the Afon Llynfi to its south-west and the A4064 road and the Afon Garw to its south-east, and has the small community of Betws towards the south. 

This hill was first listed in the original Welsh 100m P30 list published on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website, under the partly invented and transposed name of Bryn Betws, with an accompanying note stating; Name from village at summit.


Bryn Betws
160c
170
166
Two points of same height - other at SS903875. Name from village at summit.


During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put PenBryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance use a name of what I presumed to be a village and add the word Bryn to it.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historic documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

Since publication of these P30 lists on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website there have been a number of Ordnance Survey maps made available online, some of these are historic such as the series of Six-Inch maps on the National Library of Scotland website, whilst others are current and digitally updated such as the Vector Map Local hosted on the Geograph website and which is named the Interactive Coverage Map.  One of the historic maps now available is the Ordnance Survey One-Inch ‘Old Series’ map and it is this map that formed the basis for the change in this hill’s listed name.

The One-Inch ‘Old Series’ map was the first map that the Ordnance Survey produced, and their publication culminated from the whole of Britain being surveyed between 1791 and 1874 and the detail gathered therein produced at a scale of one inch to the mile and published in sheet format between 1805 and 1874.  The One-Inch ‘Old Series’ maps for the whole of Wales are now available online; they are also available in map format as enlarged and re-projected versions to match the scale and dimensions of the Ordnance Survey 1:50,000 Landranger series and are published by Cassini.  This series of maps form another important part in the study of Welsh upland place-names and bridge the timeframe leading up to the production of the Ordnance Survey base map of the Six-Inch series, and importantly for this hill and its listed name, it is this map that names the hill as Bryn Bach.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey One-Inch 'Old Series' map

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau is Bryn Bach, and this was derived from the Ordnance Survey One-Inch ‘Old Series’ map.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Cymoedd Morgannwg

Name:  Bryn Bach

Previously Listed Name:  Bryn Betws 

OS 1:50,000 map:  170

Summit Height:  167.0m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  SS 90364 87531 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  135.2m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SS 90511 87849 (LIDAR)

Drop:  31.9m (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (June 2019)






Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

Coed Cae Bach (SS 855 841) - 41st significant name change

Hill Reclassifications post for Coed Cae Bach

Significant Height Revisions post for Coed Cae Bach


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is now listed in the 100m Twmpau, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Coed Cae Bach

The criteria for the list that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

The hill is adjoined to the Cymoedd Morgannwg group of hills, which are situated in the central part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C2), and it forms a part of landscaped ground that once made up the Margam opencast mine, and is encircled by minor roads to its north, west and east and has the B4281 road and the small communities of Cefn Cribwr and Kenfig Hill towards its south.

This hill did not appear in the original 100m height band of Welsh P30 hills when they were published on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website as contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:50,000 Landranger and 1:25,000 Explorer maps of the day showed the opencast mine without any ring contours of note.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

This area was re-examined when the OS Maps website became available online.  This is the replacement for OS Get-a-map and has contours at 5m intervals and for the majority of land comprising old mine workings it shows present day contours, as opposed to the blank space showed on the counterparts of the 1:50,000 Landranger and 1:25,000 Explorer maps.

However, it was not until LIDAR became available that the details for this hill could be accurately re-assessed.  The LIDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) technique produced highly accurate height data that is now freely available for much of England and Wales. 

Prior to OS Maps and LIDAR analysis this hill was not classified as it had not appeared in any known listing of hills.  Therefore, although there is no change in this hill’s listed name it is worth categorising under the heading of Significant Name Changes as the name this hill is now listed by comes from the Tithe map.

As the ground that once made up the summit of this hill comprised bounded land the details for it were examined on the Tithe map.  The term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in Wales.

Extract from the Tithe map

The enclosed land where the summit of this hill is situated is given the number 67 on the Tithe map, this can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  The land where the summit of this hill is situated is named as Coed cae bach in the apportionments, with the details on the Tithe map appearing in the parish of LLangonoyd and in the county named as Glamorgan.

Extract from the apportionments

After examining the Tithe map I made local enquiries and contacted Randall Clatworthy who is now aged 79 and was born just to the east of where this hill is situated in Ffordd y Gyfraith and subsequently lived at Cefn Parc which is just to the north of this hill.  Randall now lives in Cefn Cribwr to the south of this hill and told me that this and its adjacent hill are known collectively as the Opencast Mountains.  However, for historic purposes the Tithe name of Coed Cae Bach is being prioritised.

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau is Coed Cae Bach, and this was derived from the Tithe map.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Cymoedd Morgannwg

Name:  Coed Cae Bach

Previously Listed Name:  previously not listed 

OS 1:50,000 map:  170

Summit Height:  102.3m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  SS 85525 84189 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  72.0m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SS 85129 84233 (LIDAR)

Drop:  30.4m (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (June 2019)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

Pedwar Erw (SS 864 837) - 40th significant name change

Hill Reclassifications post for Pedwar Erw

Significant Height Revisions post for Pedwar Erw


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is now listed in the 100m Twmpau, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Pedwar Erw

The criteria for the list that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

The hill is adjoined to the Cymoedd Morgannwg group of hills, which are situated in the central part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C2), and it forms a part of landscaped ground that once made up the Margam opencast mine, and is encircled by minor roads to its north, west and east and has the B4281 road and the small communities of Cefn Cribwr and Kenfig Hill towards its south.

This hill did not appear in the original 100m height band of Welsh P30 hills when they were published on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website as contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:50,000 Landranger and 1:25,000 Explorer maps of the day showed the opencast mine without any ring contours of note.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

This area was re-examined when the OS Maps website became available online.  This is the replacement for OS Get-a-map and has contours at 5m intervals and for the majority of land comprising old mine workings it shows present day contours, as opposed to the blank space showed on the counterparts of the 1:50,000 Landranger and 1:25,000 Explorer maps.

However, it was not until LIDAR became available that the details for this hill could be accurately re-assessed.  The LIDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) technique produced highly accurate height data that is now freely available for much of England and Wales. 

Prior to OS Maps and LIDAR analysis this hill was not classified as it had not appeared in any known listing of hills.  Therefore, although there is no change in this hill’s listed name it is worth categorising under the heading of Significant Name Changes as the name this hill is now listed by comes from the Tithe map.

As the ground that once made up the summit of this hill comprised bounded land the details for it were examined on the Tithe map.  The term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in Wales.

Extract from the Tithe map

The enclosed land where the summit of this hill is situated is given the number 467 on the Tithe map, this can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  The land where the summit of this hill is situated is named as Pedair [sic] Erw in the apportionments, with the details on the Tithe map appearing in the parish of Lalestone and in the county named as Glamorgan.

Extract from the apportionments

After examining the Tithe map I made local enquiries and contacted Randall Clatworthy who is now aged 79 and was born just to the east of where this hill is situated in Ffordd y Gyfraith and subsequently lived at Cefn Parc which is just to the north of this hill.  Randall now lives in Cefn Cribwr to the south of this hill and told me that this and its adjacent hill are known collectively as the Opencast Mountains.  However, for historic purposes the Tithe name of Pedwar Erw is being prioritised.

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau is Pedwar Erw, and this was derived from the Tithe map.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Cymoedd Morgannwg

Name:  Pedwar Erw

Previously Listed Name:  previously not listed 

OS 1:50,000 map:  170

Summit Height:  131.0m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  SS 86413 83767 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  98.4m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SS 86635 84031 (LIDAR)

Drop:  32.5m (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (May 2019)






Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

Cefn Cribwr (SS 883 829) - 39th significant name change


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Cefn Cribwr

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales - Welsh P30 hills whose prominence  equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height, with the Introduction to the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015.

The hill is adjoined to the Cymoedd Morgannwg group of hills, which are situated in the central part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C2), and it is encircled by roads with a minor road to its south and east, the M4 further to its south and the Tycribwr Hill B4281 to its west north-west, and has the town of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr (Bridgend) towards its south-east.

This hill was first listed in the original Welsh 100m P30 list published on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website, under the name of Tycribwr Hill, which is a name that is positioned following a road to the west north-west of this hill’s summit on contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer maps of the day.


Tycribwr Hill    134m    SS883829    170  151


During my early hill listing I paid little regard to name placement on the map, or the meaning of names and to what feature the name was appropriately applied to.  Therefore I prioritised names for listing purposes that I now understand are either inappropriate or where another name is viewed as being more appropriate, and as the name of Tycribwr Hill seems to apply to a part of the B4281 road that heads south-west from Tycribwr farm and as such is not the name of the hill, I therefore wanted to substantiate that the name of Cefn Cribwr had been applied to this hill and not just the small community by the same name that is positioned on its ridge crest.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

Since publication of these P30 lists on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website there have been a number of Ordnance Survey maps made available online, some of these are historic such as the series of Six-Inch maps on the National Library of Scotland website, whilst others are current and digitally updated such as the Vector Map Local hosted on the Geograph website and which is named the Interactive Coverage Map.  One of the historic maps now available is the Ordnance Survey One-Inch ‘Old Series’ map which formed the basis for the change in this hill’s listed name.

The One-Inch ‘Old Series’ map was the first map that the Ordnance Survey produced, and their publication culminated from the whole of Britain being surveyed between 1791 and 1874 and the detail gathered therein produced at a scale of one inch to the mile and published in sheet format between 1805 and 1874.  The One-Inch ‘Old Series’ maps for the whole of Wales are now available online; they are also available in map format as enlarged and re-projected versions to match the scale and dimensions of the Ordnance Survey 1:50,000 Landranger series and are published by Cassini.  This series of maps form another important part in the study of Welsh upland place-names and bridge the timeframe leading up to the production of the Ordnance Survey base map of the Six-Inch series, and importantly for this hill and its listed name, it is this map that shows the extended Cefn Cribwr takes in land comprising the extended ridge that this hill is a part of and not just the small community situated on its ridge crest.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey One-Inch 'Old Series' map

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Cefn Cribwr, and this was derived from the Ordnance Survey One-Inch ‘Old Series’ map.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Cymoedd Morgannwg

Name:  Cefn Cribwr

Previously Listed Name:  Tycribwr Hill 

OS 1:50,000 map:  170

Summit Height:  133.8m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  SS 88331 82914 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  75.7m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SS 86323 83463 (LIDAR)

Drop:  58.2m (LIDAR)

Dominance:  43.47% (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (May 2019)






Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

Yr Arwydd (SH 388 824) - 38th significant name change

Survey post for Yr Arwydd


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau, with the summit height determined by a survey with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 conducted by Myrddyn Phillips, which took place on the 28th October 2018.

The summit of Yr Arwydd is in the background on the right

The criteria for the list that this name change applies to are:
               
100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

The hill is adjoined to the Ynys Môn group of hills, which are situated in the north-western part of North Wales (Region A, Sub-Region A1), and it is positioned with the B5112 road to its south-east, and has the small community of Carmel to its south-west.

When the origin 100m height band of Welsh P30 hills were published on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website, this hill was listed under the partly invented and transposed name of Bryn Carmel, with an accompanying note stating; Name from hamlet to the South-West.


Bryn Carmel
116m
114
262
Trig pillar. Name from hamlet to the South-West


During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put PenBryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance transpose the name of the small community to the south-west of the summit of the hill and put the word Bryn in front of it.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historic documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

As the summit of this hill comprises bounded land the details for it were examined on the Tithe map.  The term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in Wales.

Extract from the Welsh Tithe Maps website showing the comparison details taken from the Ordnance Survey Six-Inch map

The enclosed land where the summit of this hill is situated is given the number 30a on the Tithe map, this can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  The land where the summit of this hill is situated is named as Yr arwydd in the apportionments, with the details on the Tithe map appearing in the parish of Llechcynfarwy and in the county named as Anglesey.

Extract from the apportionments

After visiting this hill I asked a person who was working outside one of the houses in Carmel if they knew where the local farmer lived, I was directed up the lane to a bungalow which is positioned beside the field where the summit of the hill is situated.  Having knocked on its door, Medwen Roberts opened it and greeted me with a smile, I said hello and introduced myself and explained my interest in her field and asked if she knew a name for the hill or the field where its summit is situated, she told me the hill has no name but the field is known as Yr Arwydd.  During our conversation Medwen explained that this is her field and that she had lived in Carmel for 60 years and is now aged 79.  Before leaving I walked to the gate with Medwen that gives access to her field from her bungalow and she kindly stood beside it whilst I took a series of photographs.

Medwen Roberts

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau is Yr Arwydd, and this was derived from the Tithe map and substantiated by local enquiry.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Ynys Môn

Name:  Yr Arwydd

Previously Listed Name:  Bryn Carmel 

OS 1:50,000 map:  114

Summit Height:  116.9m (converted to OSGM15)

Summit Grid Reference:  SH 38800 82447

Bwlch Height:  c 79m

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SH 40939 83373 (I)

Drop:  c 38m



Myrddyn Phillips (May 2019)






Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

Bwlch Mawr (SH 777 755) - 37th significant name change

Survey post for Bwlch Mawr

Hill Reclassifications post for Bwlch Mawr


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that was listed in the 100m Twmpau, with the summit height, its location, the drop and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis, and a subsequent summit survey with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 conducted by Myrddyn Phillips, with the latter taking place on the 10th October 2018.

LIDAR image of Bwlch Mawr

The criteria for the list that this name change applies to are:
               
100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

The hill is adjoined to the Carneddau group of hills, which are situated in the north-western part of North Wales (Region A, Sub-Region A1), and it is positioned with the B5106 road to its west and the Afon Conwy (River Conwy) to its east, and has the town of Conwy towards its north.

When the origin 100m height band of Welsh P30 hills were published on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website, the north-easterly 130m map heighted summit positioned at SH 781 758 and listed as Cae Alen was prioritised for P30 status over that of the south-westerly small uppermost 130m contour ring positioned at SH 777 755.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

The details for this hill were re-assessed when the Ordnance Survey Vector Map Local became available online, this map is hosted on the Geograph website and is entitled the Interactive Coverage Map, and as an uppermost contour ring should be prioritised over that of a same map heighted spot height the south-westerly point positioned at SH 777 755 was now prioritised for P30 status and listed under the name of Iolyn Park.  This is a name that appears on contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:50,000 Landranger and 1:25,000 Explorer maps and is placed relatively close to this hill’s summit.

It was not until LIDAR became available and analysed that the details for this hill could be accurately re-assessed.  The LIDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) technique produced highly accurate height data that is now freely available for much of England and Wales, and although LIDAR and the survey with the Trimble GeoXH 6000 confirm that Cae Alen (SH 78116 75814) is in fact higher than the summit positioned at SH 777 755 and the status of the P30 reverts to its original listed summit, it is still worthwhile documenting the change in this hill’s listed name. 

Before visiting this hill I met Richard Davies; an employee at the Gorse Hill Caravan Park, which takes in land to the immediate south of this hill.  During our conversation Richard referred to the hill as Bwlch Mawr, which is the name of the farm near to its summit and which appears on the Ordnance Survey Vector Map Local hosted on the Geograph website.  After visiting the adjacent southerly hill of Bryn Eithin (SH 77584 75224) I met the owner of the Gorse Hill Caravan Park; Rob Thomas-Evelyn, who also gave me the name of Bwlch Mawr for this hill and told me that the hill is known after the name of the farm.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey Vector Map Local hosted on the Geograph website and which is entitled the Interactive Coverage Map

As the summit of this hill comprises bounded land the details for it were examined on the Tithe map.  The term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in Wales.

Extract from the Tithe map

The enclosed land where the summit of this hill is situated is given the number 78 on the Tithe map, this can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  The land where the summit of this hill is situated is named as Bwlch mawr in the apportionments, with the details on the Tithe map appearing in the parish of Gyffin and in the county named as Carnarvon [sic].

Extract from the apportionments

Therefore, the name this hill is now documented as is Bwlch Mawr, and this was derived from local enquiry and substantiated by the Tithe map.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Carneddau

Name:  Bwlch Mawr

Previously Listed Name:  Iolyn Park 

OS 1:50,000 map:  115

Summit Height:  128.4m (converted to OSGM15)

Summit Grid Reference:  SH 77790 75561

Bwlch Height:  110.9m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SH 78016 75713 (LIDAR)

Drop:  17.5m (Trimble summit and LIDAR bwlch)



Myrddyn Phillips (April 2019)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - 100m Twmpau

Cae Felin Wynt (SS 683 954) - 36th significant name change

Summit Relocations post for Cae Felin Wynt


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height, its location, the drop and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Cae Felin Wynt

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales – Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips with the Introduction to the start of the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015.

The hill is adjoined to the Fforest Fawr group of hills, which are situated in the western part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C2), and it is positioned with the B5444 and the A4217 roads to its west and the Crymlyn Bog to its east, and has the city of Abertawe (Swansea) towards the west south-west.

The hill originally appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the name of Cefn Hengoed, which is a name that appears close to the summit of this hill on contemporary Ordnance Survey maps.


Cefn Hengoed
117m
159
165
Trig pillar at 685956. Two points of same height - other at SS681955.


During my early hill listing I paid little regard to name placement on the map, or the meaning of names and to what feature the name was appropriately applied to.  Therefore I prioritised names for listing purposes that I now understand are either inappropriate or where another name is viewed as being more appropriate.  And as I have been unable to substantiate the name of Cefn Hengoed for that of the hill I examined the Tithe map.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

As the summit of this hill comprises bounded land the details for it were examined on the Tithe map.  The term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in Wales.

Extract from the Tithe map

The enclosed land where the summit of this hill is situated is given the number 1115 on the Tithe map, this can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  The land where the summit of this hill is situated is named as Cae felin wynt in the apportionments, with the details on the Tithe map appearing in the parish of Llansamlet and in the county named as Glamorgan.

Extract from the apportionments

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Cae Felin Wynt, and this name was derived from the Tithe map.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Fforest Fawr

Name:  Cae Felin Wynt

Previously Listed Name:  Cefn Hengoed  

OS 1:50,000 map:  159

Summit Height:  118.9m (LIDAR, natural ground)

Summit Grid Reference:  SS 68320 95490 (LIDAR, natural ground)

Bwlch Height:  74.2m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SS 67837 95105 (LIDAR)

Drop:  44.7m (LIDAR)

Dominance:  37.57% (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (April 2019)