Tuesday, 10 March 2020

Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales


Y Trechol –The Dominant Hills of Wales – Significant Name Changes

Y Trechol –The Dominant Hills of Wales are the Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height, accompanying the Dominant list is a sub list entitled The Lesser Dominant Hills of Wales with the criteria for this sub category being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.  The list commenced publication on Mapping Mountains on 03.012.15 with its Introduction giving details to its compilation and criteria, with Change Registers also created for the Dominant and the Lesser Dominant category.

The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips and the posts that have appeared on Mapping Mountains detailing the significant name changes to the Dominant and Lesser Dominant list appear below presented chronologically in receding order.









Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Ringland Top (ST 353 885) - 80th significant name change


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 30-99m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop, dominance and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Ringland Top (ST 353 885)

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

30-99m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 30m and below 100m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 30-99m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 30m and below 100m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales – Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips with the Introduction to the start of the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015, and which is now available in its entirety on Mapping Mountains in Google Doc format.

The hill is adjoined to the Gwent Is Coed group of hills which are situated in the south-eastern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C3), and it is positioned with the B4237 road and the M4 motorway to its north-west, and the A48 road to its south and east, and is positioned in the eastern outskirts of the city of Casnewydd (Newport).

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

The hill appeared in the original 30-99m Welsh P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the name of The Circles, which online sources indicate is more applicable to a housing estate rather than the hill. 



The Circles66mST353885171152



During my early hill listing I paid little regard to name placement on the map, or the meaning of names and to what feature the name was appropriately applied to.  Therefore I prioritised names for listing purposes that I now understand are either inappropriate or where another name is viewed as being more appropriate.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey series of Six-Inch maps

Since publication of these P30 lists on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website there have been a number of Ordnance Survey maps made available online, some of these are historic such as the series of Six-Inch maps on the National Library of Scotland website, whilst others are current and digitally updated such as the Vector Map Local hosted on the Geograph website and which is entitled the Interactive Coverage Map and the mapping on the Magic Maps website, and it is the latter map and the series of Six-Inch maps that name the area taking in the summit of this hill as Ringland Top.

Extract from the Magic Maps website

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 30-99m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Ringland Top, and this was derived from the Ordnance Survey mapping on the Magic Maps website and the series of Ordnance Survey Six-Inch maps. 


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Gwent Is Coed

Name:  Ringland Top

Previously Listed Name:  The Circles

OS 1:50,000 map:  171

Summit Height:  67.3m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  ST 35318 88536 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  25.6m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  ST 35529 88767 (LIDAR) 

Drop:  41.7m (LIDAR)

Dominance:  61.95% (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (August 2020)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Coed Rhedyn (ST 363 893) - 79th significant name change


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 30-99m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop, dominance and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Coed Rhedyn (ST 363 893)

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

30-99m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 30m and below 100m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 30-99m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 30m and below 100m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales – Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips with the Introduction to the start of the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015, and which is now available in its entirety on Mapping Mountains in Google Doc format.

The hill is adjoined to the Gwent Is Coed group of hills which are situated in the south-eastern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C3), and it is positioned with the A48 road to its west and the M4 motorway to its north, and has the city of Casnewydd (Newport) towards the west south-west.

The hill appeared in the original 30-99m Welsh P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under a partly transposed and invented name of Pen Coed Rhedyn, with an accompanying note stating; Name from wood to the West. 


Pen Coed Rhedyn81mST364893171152Name from wood to the West


During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put PenBryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance transpose the name of a wood and add the word Pen to it.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historic documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

As the summit position indicated by LIDAR is to woodland that comprises a part of Coed Rhedyn and as this is the main named feature of this hill, this name is appropriate to use for the hill and therefore adding an invented name to it is unnecessary.

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 30-99m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Coed Rhedyn, and this was derived from the contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Gwent Is Coed

Name:  Coed Rhedyn

Previously Listed Name:  Pen Coed Rhedyn

OS 1:50,000 map:  171

Summit Height:  81.3m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  ST 36387 89346 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  38.3m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  ST 36089 89668 (LIDAR) 

Drop:  43.0m (LIDAR)

Dominance:  52.87% (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (July 2020)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Cae Rosser (SO 388 005) - 78th significant name change

Hill Reclassifications post for Cae Rosser


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 30-99m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop, dominance and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Cae Rosser (SO 388 005)

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

30-99m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 30m and below 100m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 30-99m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 30m and below 100m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales – Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips with the Introduction to the start of the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015, and which is now available in its entirety on Mapping Mountains in Google Doc format.

The hill is adjoined to the Gwent Is Coed group of hills which are situated in the south-eastern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C3), and it is positioned with the A472 road to its north and the A449 road to its east and the Afon Wysg (River Usk) to the west, and has the town of Brynbuga (Usk) towards the north north-west.

The hill originally appeared in the 30-99m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the transposed name of Red Hill, which is a name adjoined to a minor road on the contemporary Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map and not necessarily to the hill itself.


Red Hill70cSO388005171152


During my early hill listing I paid little regard to name placement on the map, or the meaning of names and to what feature the name was appropriately applied to.  Therefore I prioritised names for listing purposes that I now understand are either inappropriate or where another name is viewed as being more appropriate.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

As this hill comprises bounded land the Tithe map was consulted.  The term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in Wales.

Extract from the Tithe map

The enclosed land where the summit of this hill is situated is given the number 317 on the Tithe map, this can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  The land where the summit of this hill is situated is named as Cae Rosser in the apportionments, with the details on the Tithe map appearing in the parish of Llangeview [sic] and in the county named as Monmouth.

Extract from the apportionments

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 30-99m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Cae Rosser, and this was derived from the Tithe map.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Gwent Is Coed

Name:  Cae Rosser

Previously Listed Name:  Red Hill

OS 1:50,000 map:  171

Summit Height:  72.7m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  SO 38857 00521 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  32.2m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SO 39355 00008 (LIDAR) 

Drop:  40.5m (LIDAR)

Dominance:  55.68% (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (July 2020)






Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Long Park (SS 072 984) - 77th significant name change

Hill Reclassifications post for Long Park


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 30-99m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop, dominance and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Long Park (SS 072 984)

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

30-99m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 30m and below 100m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 30-99m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 30m and below 100m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales – Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips with the Introduction to the start of the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015, and which is now available in its entirety on Mapping Mountains in Google Doc format.

The hill is adjoined to the Brandy Hill group of hills, which are situated in the south-western part of Mid and West Wales (Region B, Sub-Region B4), and is positioned with the coast to its south, the A4139 road to its north and the B4585 road to its west and south, and has the village of Maenorbŷr (Manorbier) towards the south-west.

The hill originally appeared in the Welsh 30-99m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the transposed name of Middle Hill, with an accompanying note stating; Name from buildings to the South.


Middle Hill80cSS07298415836Name from buildings to the South


During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put PenBryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance transpose the name of a farm and use it for that of the hill.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historic documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

As the summit of this hill comprises bounded land the details for it were examined on the Tithe map.  The term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in Wales.

Extract from the Tithe map

The enclosed land where the summit of this hill is situated is given the number 633 on the Tithe map, this can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  The land where the summit of this hill is situated is named as Long Park in the apportionments, with the details on the Tithe map appearing in the parish of Manorbeer [sic] and in the county named as Pembrokeshire.

Extract from the apportionments

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 30-99m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Long Park, and this name was derived from the Tithe map.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Brandy Hill

Name:  Long Park

Previously Listed Name:  Middle Hill
  
OS 1:50,000 map:  158

Summit Height:  79.2m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  SS 07255 98449 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  48.0m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SS 06985 99391 (LIDAR)

Drop:  31.1m (LIDAR)

Dominance:  39.34% (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (May 2020)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Mynydd Llwyd (ST 433 935) - 76th significant name change

Significant Height Revisions post for Mynydd Llwyd


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 200m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height, bwlch height, their locations, the drop, dominance and status of the hill derived from detail on contemporary and historic Ordnance Survey maps.

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

200m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 200m and below 300m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 200m Sub-Twmpau, with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 200m and below 300m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales - Welsh P30 hills whose prominence  equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height, with the Introduction to the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015, and which is now available in its entirety on Mapping Mountains in Google Doc format.

The hill is adjoined to the Gwent Is Coed group of hills which are situated in the south-eastern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C3), and it is positioned with the A449 road to its west, the A48 road to its south and the B4235 road to its north-east, and has the city of Casnewydd (Newport) towards the west south-west.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

The hill appeared in the original 200m Welsh P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the name of Gray Hill, which is a name that appeared near the summit of this hill on Ordnance Survey 1:50,000 Landranger and 1:25,000 Explorer maps of the day.


Gray Hill273mST434935171/17214275m on 1986 1:50000 map


Since publication of these P30 lists on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website there have been a number of Ordnance Survey maps made available online, some of these are historic such as the series of Six-Inch maps on the National Library of Scotland website, whilst others are current and digitally updated such as the Vector Map Local that used to be hosted on the Geograph website and which is named the Interactive Coverage Map.  Two of the historic maps now available are the Ordnance Survey Draft Surveyors map which formed the basis for the first publicly available Ordnance Survey One-Inch ‘Old Series’ map, and it is these maps that form the basis for the change in this hill’s listed name.

The Draft Surveyors maps consist of the preliminary drawings made by the Ordnance Surveyor’s surveyors between the 1780s and 1840 and formed the basis for the first publicly available One-Inch map.  They were drawn at scales of six inches to the mile for areas considered of particular military significance and down to two inches to the mile for other areas.  Fair copies were then produced from these preliminary drawings to one inch to the mile and then copper plates were prepared for printing.  The Draft Surveyors maps for the whole of Wales are now available online and they form an important part in the study of Welsh upland place-names as they bridge the time frame between the late 18th century and the mid-19th century when the Ordnance Survey produced their first One-Inch maps, and importantly for this hill and its listed name, this map gives the Welsh version, along with its English counterpart.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey Draft Surveyors map

The One-Inch ‘Old Series’ map was the first map that Ordnance Survey produced, and their publication culminated from the whole of Britain being surveyed between 1791 and 1874 and the detail gathered therein produced at a scale of one inch to the mile and published in sheet format between 1805 and 1874.  The One-Inch ‘Old Series’ maps for the whole of Wales are now available online; they are also available in map format as enlarged and re-projected versions to match the scale and dimensions of the Ordnance Survey 1:50,000 Landranger series and are published by Cassini.  This series of maps form another important part in the study of Welsh upland place-names and bridge the timeframe leading up to the production of the Ordnance Survey base map of the Six-Inch series, and again, this map gives the Welsh version of this name; Mynydd Llwyd, along with its English counterpart.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey One-Inch 'Old Series' map

The intricacies of language and prioritising one in favour of another for listing a hill is fraught with complication, with originating Cymraeg names being anglicised and also originating English names being cymricised, examples such as these are more common in border country and especially so for anglicised forms.  There is no steadfast rule that fits all, but as a standard a name that has its origins in the Welsh language should be prioritised in favour of a contemporary anglicised or English version of the name, and ideally for this to be substantiated by either historic documentation and / or contemporary usage.  Likewise, if a name exists where an element of it is in English and if this name applies to a hill that is situated in a Welsh speaking part of Wales it is standard practice to use a full Welsh term for the name.  It is also standard practice to use a Welsh name for a hill if another name exists that has originated in a different language.

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 200m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Mynydd Llwyd, and this was derived from the Ordnance Survey Draft Surveyors map and the One-Inch ‘Old Series’ map, with the Welsh name for this hill prioritised over its English counterpart, which for listing purposes is standard practice.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Gwent Is Coed

Name:  Mynydd Llwyd

Previously Listed Name:  Gray Hill

OS 1:50,000 map:  171, 172

Summit Height:  275m (spot height)

Summit Grid Reference:  ST 43399 93559 (hand-held GPS via DoBIH)

Bwlch Height:  c 183m (interpolation)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  ST 42894 93984 (interpolation)

Drop:  c 92m (spot height summit and interpolated bwlch)

Dominance:  33.45% (spot height summit and interpolated bwlch)


Myrddyn Phillips (May 2020)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Coed Gwent (ST 411 943) - 75th significant name change


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the Y Trichant – The 300m Hills of Wales and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height, bwlch height, their locations, the drop, dominance and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR summit image of Coed Gwent (ST 411 943)

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

Y Trichant – The 300m Hills of Wales.  Welsh hills at or above 300m and below 400m in height that have 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the Sub-Trichant with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 300m and below 400m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips, with the Introduction to the list and the renaming of it appearing on Mapping Mountains on the 13th May 2017.

Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales - Welsh P30 hills whose prominence  equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height, with the Introduction to the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015, and which is now available in its entirety on Mapping Mountains in Google Doc format.

The hill is adjoined to the Gwent Is Coed group of hills which are situated in the south-eastern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C3), and it is positioned with the A449 road to its west, the A48 road to its south and the B4235 road to its north-east, and has the city of Casnewydd (Newport) towards the south-west.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

The hill appeared in the original 300m Welsh P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the name of Wentwood, which is a name that appeared near the summit of this hill on Ordnance Survey 1:50,000 Landranger and 1:25,000 Explorer maps of the day.


Wentwood309mST411943171/17214/152Marilyn. Clem/Yeaman. Trig pillar.


The intricacies of language and prioritising one in favour of another for listing a hill is fraught with complication, with originating Cymraeg names being anglicised and also originating English names being cymricised, examples such as these are more common in border country and especially so for anglicised forms.  There is no steadfast rule that fits all, but as a standard a name that has its origins in the Welsh language should be prioritised in favour of a contemporary anglicised or English version of the name, and ideally for this to be substantiated by either historic documentation and / or contemporary usage.  Likewise, if a name exists where an element of it is in English and if this name applies to a hill that is situated in a Welsh speaking part of Wales it is standard practice to use a full Welsh term for the name.  It is also standard practice to use a Welsh name for a hill if another name exists that has originated in a different language.

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the Y Trichant – The 300m Hills of Wales and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Coed Gwent, as the Welsh name for this hill is prioritised over its English counterpart, which for listing purposes is standard practice.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Gwent Is Coed

Name:  Coed Gwent

Previously Listed Name:  Wentwood

OS 1:50,000 map:  171, 172

Summit Height:  309.1m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  ST 41125 94309 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  64.3m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SO 44099 08545 (LIDAR)

Drop:  244.8m (LIDAR)

Dominance:  79.21% (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (May 2020)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Cymin (SO 527 125) - 74th significant name change

Hill Reclassifications post for Cymin


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 200m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height, bwlch height, their locations, the drop, dominance and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Cymin (SO 527 125)

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

200m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 200m and below 300m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 200m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 200m and below 300m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales - Welsh P30 hills whose prominence  equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height, with the Introduction to the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015, and which is now available in its entirety on Mapping Mountains in Google Doc format.

The hill is adjoined to the Fforest y Ddena group of hills which are situated in the south-eastern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C3), and it is positioned with the A4136 road to its north and the A466 road to its south-west, and has the town of Trefynwy (Monmouth) towards the west.

The hill appeared in the original 200m Welsh P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the name of Kymin Tower, which is a name that appeared near the summit of this hill on Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Outdoor Leisure maps of the day.


Kymin Tower250cSO52812416214


During my early hill listing I paid little regard to name placement on the map, or the meaning of names and to what feature the name was appropriately applied to.  Therefore I prioritised names for listing purposes that I now understand are either inappropriate or where another name is viewed as being more appropriate.  The name of Kymin Tower refers to an 18th century round house and naval temple that are positioned on the summit area of this hill, as these are inanimate objects a name that refers directly to the hill is more appropriate.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

Contemporary Ordnance Survey maps use the name Kymin which is positioned near the summit of this hill.  This form of this name also appears in a number of online sources.  The word Kymin is anglicised from the Welsh word Cymin, meaning common or unenclosed land, with the definite article ‘Y’ lost as evidenced in the anglicised form (Place-names of Gwent, Richard Morgan, Gwasg Carreg Gwalch 2005).

The intricacies of language and prioritising one in favour of another for listing a hill is fraught with complication, with originating Cymraeg names being anglicised and also originating English names being cymricised, examples such as these are more common in border country and especially so for anglicised forms.  There is no steadfast rule that fits all, but as a standard a name that has its origins in the Welsh language and where this is substantiated by either historic documentation and / or contemporary usage should be prioritised in favour of a contemporary anglicised or English version of the name.  Likewise, if a name exists where an element of it is in English and if this name applies to a hill that is situated in a Welsh speaking part of Wales it is standard practice to use a full Welsh term for the name.  It is also standard practice to use a Welsh name for a hill if another name exists that has originated in a different language.

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 200m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Cymin, and this was derived from the anglicised form that appears on contemporary Ordnance Survey maps. 


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Fforest y Ddena

Name:  Cymin

Previously Listed Name:  Kymin Tower

OS 1:50,000 map:  162

Summit Height:  256.4m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  SO 52771 12511 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  170.6m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SO 53644 12441 (LIDAR)

Drop:  85.8m (LIDAR)

Dominance:  33.47% (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (April 2020)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Ton (SO 499 117) - 73rd significant name change


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 30-99m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop, dominance and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Ton (SO 499 117)

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

30-99m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 30m and below 100m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 30-99m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 30m and below 100m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales – Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips with the Introduction to the start of the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015, and which is now available in its entirety on Mapping Mountains in Google Doc format.

The hill is adjoined to the Mynyddoedd Duon group of hills which are situated in the eastern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C3), and it has the B4233 road to its north and the A40 road to its south, and has the town of Trefynwy (Monmouth) towards the north-east.

The hill originally appeared in the Welsh 30-99m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the partly invented and transposed name of St Dial’s Hill, with an accompanying note stating; Name from farm to the South.


St Dial's Hill83mSO50011716214Name from farm to the South


During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put PenBryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance transpose the name of a farm and add the word Hill to it.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historic documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

As the summit of this hill comprises bounded land the details for it were examined on the Tithe map.  The term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in Wales.

Extract from the Tithe map

The enclosed land where the summit of this hill is situated is given the number 666 on the Tithe map, this can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  The land where the summit of this hill is situated is named as Ton in the apportionments, with the details on the Tithe map appearing in the parish of Monmouth and in the county named as Monmouth.

Extract from the apportionments

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 30-99m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Ton, and this name was derived from the Tithe map.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Mynyddoedd Duon

Name:  Ton

Previously Listed Name:  St Dial’s Hill
  
OS 1:50,000 map:  162

Summit Height:  83.2m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  SO 49966 11745 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  35.6m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SO 49172 11501 (LIDAR)

Drop:  47.6m (LIDAR)

Dominance:  57.18% (LIDAR)


Myrddyn Phillips (April 2020)







Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales

Rough (SO 486 146) - 72nd significant name change


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 30-99m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height, bwlch height and their locations, the drop, dominance and status of the hill confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips.

LIDAR image of Rough (SO 486 146)

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

30-99m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 30m and below 100m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 30-99m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 30m and below 100m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales – Welsh P30 hills whose prominence equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height.  The list is authored by Myrddyn Phillips with the Introduction to the start of the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015, and which is now available in its entirety on Mapping Mountains in Google Doc format.

The hill is adjoined to the Mynyddoedd Duon group of hills which are situated in the eastern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C3), and it has the Afon Mynwy (River Monnow) to its north and east, the B4233 road to its south and the B4347 road to its west north-west, and has the town of Trefynwy (Monmouth) towards the south-east.

The hill originally appeared in the Welsh 30-99m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under the partly invented and transposed name of Black Wood Top, with an accompanying note stating; Name from wood to the North-West.


Black Wood Top70cSO48714616114Name from wood to the North-West


During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put PenBryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance transpose the name of a wood and add the word Top to it.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historic documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

As the summit of this hill comprises bounded land the details for it were examined on the Tithe map.  The term Tithe map is generally given to a map of a Welsh or English parish or township and which was prepared after the 1836 Tithe Commutation Act.  This act allowed tithes to be paid in cash rather than goods.  The Tithe maps gave names of owners and occupiers of land in each parish and importantly for place-name research they also included the name of enclosed land.  This enclosed land is usually based on a field system, however not every field is given a name, but many are and especially so in Wales.

Extract from the Tithe map

The enclosed land where the summit of this hill is situated is given the number 351 on the Tithe map, this can be cross referenced against the apportionments; it is these apportionments that give the name of the owner or occupier of the land as well as the name of the land.  The land where the summit of this hill is situated is named as Rough in the apportionments, with the details on the Tithe map appearing in the parish of Monmouth and in the county named as Monmouth.

Extract from the apportionments

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 30-99m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Rough, and this name was derived from the Tithe map.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Mynyddoedd Duon

Name:  Rough

Previously Listed Name:  Black Wood Top
  
OS 1:50,000 map:  161

Summit Height:  73.5m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  SO 48651 14629 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  39.7m (LIDAR)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SO 48474 14485 (LIDAR)

Drop:  33.9m (LIDAR)

Dominance:  46.05%


Myrddyn Phillips (April 2020)






Mapping Mountains - Significant Name Changes - Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales


Castle Park (SO 381 021) - 71st significant name change


There has been a Significant Name Change to a hill that is listed in the 100m Twmpau and the Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales, with the summit height and its location confirmed by LIDAR analysis conducted by Myrddyn Phillips, and the bwlch height and its location, the drop and status of the hill derived from detail on contemporary Ordnance Survey maps.

LIDAR image of Castle Park (SO 381 021)

The criteria for the two listings that this name change applies to are:

100m Twmpau - Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 30m minimum drop, with an accompanying sub list entitled the 100m Sub-Twmpau with the criteria for this sub category being all Welsh hills at or above 100m and below 200m in height with 20m or more and below 30m of drop, with the word Twmpau being an acronym standing for thirty welsh metre prominences and upward.

Y Trechol - The Dominant Hills of Wales - Welsh P30 hills whose prominence  equal or exceed half that of their absolute height.  With the criteria for Lesser Dominant status being those additional Welsh P30 hills whose prominence is between one third and half that of their absolute height, with the Introduction to the Mapping Mountains publication of this list appearing on the 3rd December 2015, and which is now available in its entirety on Mapping Mountains in Google Doc format.

The hill is adjoined to the Mynyddoedd Duon group of hills which are situated in the eastern part of South Wales (Region C, Sub-Region C3), and it has the Afon Wysg (River Usk) and the B4598 road to its west, the A472 road to its south and minor roads to its east and north, and has the town of Brynbuga (Usk) towards the south-west.

The hill originally appeared in the 100m P30 list on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website under a partly transposed name of Lady Hill, with an accompanying note stating; Name from wood to the North-West.


Lady Hill110mSO382022171152Trig pillar. Name from wood to the North-West.


During my early hill listing I thought it appropriate to either invent a name for a hill, or use a name that appeared near to the summit of the hill on Ordnance Survey maps of the day.  My preference was to use farm names and put PenBryn or Moel in front of them or as in this instance transpose the name of near wood and exclude the word Wood from it.  This is not a practice that I now advocate as with time and inclination place-name data can be improved either by asking local people or by examining historic documents, through this form of research an appropriate name for the hill can usually be found.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map

Since publication of these P30 lists on Geoff Crowder’s v-g.me website there have been a number of Ordnance Survey maps made available online, some of these are historic such as the series of Six-Inch maps on the National Library of Scotland website, whilst others are current and digitally updated such as the Vector Map Local hosted on the Geograph website and which is entitled the Interactive Coverage Map.  One of the historic maps now available is the Ordnance Survey One-Inch ‘Old Series’ map and it is this map that formed the basis for the change in this hill’s listed name.

Extract from the Ordnance Survey One-Inch 'Old Series' map

The One-Inch ‘Old Series’ map was the first map that Ordnance Survey produced, and their publication culminated from the whole of Britain being surveyed between 1791 and 1874 and the detail gathered therein produced at a scale of one inch to the mile and published in sheet format between 1805 and 1874.  The One-Inch ‘Old Series’ maps for the whole of Wales are now available online; they are also available in map format as enlarged and re-projected versions to match the scale and dimensions of the Ordnance Survey 1:50,000 Landranger series and are published by Cassini.  This series of maps form another important part in the study of Welsh upland place-names and bridge the timeframe leading up to the production of the Ordnance Survey base map of the Six-Inch series, and importantly for this hill and its listed name, it is this map that names the area taking in the hill as Castle Park.

Therefore, the name this hill is now listed by in the 100m Twmpau and Y Trechol – The Dominant Hills of Wales is Castle Park, and this was derived from the Ordnance Survey One-Inch ‘Old Series’ map.


The full details for the hill are:

Group:  Mynyddoedd Duon

Name:  Castle Park

Previously Listed Name:  Lady Hill

OS 1:50,000 map:  171

Summit Height:  110.0m (LIDAR)

Summit Grid Reference:  SO 38199 02145 (LIDAR)

Bwlch Height:  c 67m (interpolation)

Bwlch Grid Reference:  SO 38974 02847 (interpolation) 

Drop:  c 43m (LIDAR summit and interpolated bwlch)

Dominance:  39.07% (LIDAR summit and interpolated bwlch)


Myrddyn Phillips (March 2020)




No comments: