Tuesday, 28 April 2020

Guest Contributor – Ronnie Bowron


If readers would like to contribute an article for the Guest Contributor page heading please contact me, my email address appears on the About Me page heading. The 0nly two things I ask is that the article should be hill related and importantly I should not end up in court through its publication! Otherwise the choice of subject matter is down to the Guest Contributor.

About the Author; Ronnie Bowron

Ronnie Bowron developed a passion for the mountains through Scouting where as a Cub Scout over the Easter weekend in 1976 he visited the Lake District for the first time.  Since then he has walked extensively around the UK, with various trips to the Alps and Himalaya.
Ten years ago he decided to have greater objectives to walking the fells and subsequently completed the Wainwrights and then the Outlying Fells, Birketts, Nuttalls and Simms.  Having completed a round of English and Welsh mountains he then refocused on the Lake District completing the Synges.

His current projects revolve around documenting all recognised hills/mountains from any bagging list in each of the UK’s 15 National Parks.  He calls these “The Definitive Lists©” of the National Parks of the United Kingdom.  This has now followed on with selective Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) such as the North Pennines and the Forest of Bowland.

In the last few years he has completed rounds of all 1,040 summits in the Lake District National Park and all 195 summits within the Yorkshire Dales National Park.  His attention then turned to documenting and climbing all English/Welsh Mountains over 2,000 feet/600 metres on the same basis as his Definitive Lists, with a completion of the 920th summit on Tryfan North Top in May 2019 thus becoming the first known person to complete all the recognised lists for the LDWA Hillwalkers Register 1 since Frank Yates in 1993.

Current objectives revolve around completing the English and Welsh Deweys, the 216 summits within the North Pennines AONB and closer to home all 511 summits within the historic county boundary of Yorkshire.

The History of Lake District Hill Lists

Many people believe that the pastime of hill bagging is a relatively recent phenomenon, not so, it dates back to the earliest hill lists of the Scottish Munros published in 1891 and the Corbett Twenty-Fives for England & Wales published in 1911.

In fact Corbett starts his article within the Rucksack Club Journal of 1911 introducing the very first bagging list for England & Wales with: ‘During the last few years there has arisen among some of the members of the Rucksack Club a new craze or hobby, which may be looked upon as a special form of the old passion of peak-bagging which has long been known to mountaineers’

The first hill lists were generally published in Climbing Club journals such as The Scottish Mountaineering Club Journal, The Rucksack Club Journal, The Journal of the Fell and Rock Climbing Club of the English Lake District and Wayfarer's Journal.

The English Lake District being by far and away the most visited National Park has more books written about it and guides published than any other region of the UK.  As a result there are far more hill lists dedicated to the Lake District than any other region.

This paper seeks to chronicle the development of hill lists in the Lake District over the course of the last century or so.  Many other lists include Lake District hills and mountains but this paper will focus on lists dedicated to the geographic area of the Lake District or including books forming part of a series with a dedicated Lake District book.

The history of Lake District Hill Lists begins with: -

Baddeley - 1880

Mountford John Byrde Baddeley (1843–1906) was a distinguished English guidebook writer of the late 19th and early 20th century.  His guides appeared in the 'Thorough Guide' series, edited by Baddeley and his colleague, Charles Slegg Ward, and included guides to various parts of the UK.  Each guide included "maps by Bartholomew" and was published by Dulac & Co, London.

His Lake District guide (entitled Thorough Guide to the English Lake District, first edition, Dulau & Co, 1880) was particularly highly thought of.  It continued to be revised and reissued, and remained in print into at least a 26th edition (1978).

The guidebook was largely text-based, with maps by John Bartholomew.  Compared with later authors, Baddeley's guide was more general, giving motoring and accommodation advice and low-level walks as well as outline guides to walks on the fells.

Within the introductory section of the guidebook amongst lists of Lakes (16 in total), Height of Passes and Heights of Waterfalls is a list of 44 Mountains in the Lake District ranging from Scafell Pike at 3,210ft to Loughrigg at 1,101ft.

Blencathra is listed as Saddleback and The Old Man of Coniston by its original name of Old Man.  Interestingly Black Combe is listed within the total of 44, yet Wainwright relegated it to an Outlying Fell.

Baddeley was born in Rocester, Staffordshire in 1843, and the son of a solicitor.  He was educated at King Edwards School, Birmingham and Clare College, Cambridge.  He then worked as a classics master at Somersetshire College, Bath and Sheffield Grammar School (1880-1884) before retiring from teaching and moving to the Lake District, first to Windermere and then Bowness-on-Windermere.  As well as writing guide books, he was an active member of the Lake District Association.

Baddeley is commemorated by the 'Baddeley clock' on the border between Windermere and Bowness.

Graham – 1932

The Bob Graham Round is strictly a fell running challenge in the English Lake District.  It is named after Bob Graham (1889–1966), a Keswick guest-house owner, who in June 1932 broke the Lakeland Fell record by traversing 42 fells within a 24-hour period.  Traversing the 42 fells, starting and finishing at Keswick Moot Hall, involves 66 miles (106 km) with 26,900 feet (8,200 m) of ascent.

The original challenge was to bag the greatest number of summits within a 24 hour period which remains The Lakeland 24 hour record but the Bob Graham Round is now a set list with Fastest Known Times.

The development of progressively lengthier and more competitive rounds of the Lakeland fells appeared in the fell-walking section of M. J. B. Baddeley's Lakeland guidebook editions.
The Round was first repeated, in a better time, in 1960 by Alan Heaton.  Since then over 2000 individuals have completed the Round with the fastest time being 12 hours 52 minutes set by Kilian Jornet in 2018, surpassing by more than an hour Billy Bland's record which had stood for 36 years, the women's record is 15 hours 24 minutes set by Jasmin Paris in 2016.

The Lakeland 24 hour record has also been improved with the current holder, Mark Hartell, successfully reaching 77 summits in the allotted time.

Bob Graham's original round included four tops that are not in what is now called the Bob Graham Round.  These are:

·         High White Stones (north of High Raise)
·         Hanging Knotts (a subsidiary summit of Bowfell)
·         Looking Stead (on the ridge between Pillar and Black Sail Pass)
·         High Snab Bank (on the ridge to the north of Robinson)

Alan Heaton replaced these with:

·         White Side
·         Helvellyn Lower Man
·         Ill Crag
·         Broad Crag

Whilst we are on the Bob Graham Round it would be remiss not to mention the double round fastest known time. A double round is two rounds (132 miles and 54,000 feet of ascent) on consecutive days.  This has been achieved four times with the record held by Nicky Spinks at 45 hours 30 minutes in May 2016.  Only very rarely in any sport does the women’s record exceed the men’s record, a truly outstanding feat.

Simpson – 1937.

The next list was first published in a mountaineering club journal – The Wayfarers Club was founded in 1906 in Liverpool and continues to this day, whilst a national club it still has a strong base of members from Merseyside and the North West.  Little is known about Simpson but he was also a member of the Fell & Rock Climbing Club of the English Lake District, in its 50th journal published in 1956 he is listed as “Custodian of the Latern Slides” between 1936 and 1956 and wrote the first article in this anniversary journal “The First Fifty Years” (pp 233-263), a worthy read of the history of this esteemed club and the Lake District.

Simpson was the first person to use the coloured Popular Edition of the Ordnance Survey map.  This was the first map series to use 50 foot contours.  Simpson identified 225 summits within the Lake District over 2,000 foot in height with at least one full contour circle.

The detailed research by Simpson was followed up by Ted Moss by producing the equivalent list for the rest of England in 1939 and for Wales in 1940 with further additions post the Second World War in 1952 and 1954.  Combining the Simpson and Moss lists together one had the first comprehensive list of mountains in England & Wales over 2,000 feet in height.

The 1952 update by Ted Moss in the Rucksack Club Journal included one additional summit in the Lake District – Lad Stones (now known as Lad Stones North Top) following the identification of a 2,100+ contour ring – included in lists as a Moss summit but more correctly should be the 226th Simpson summit.

Wainwright 1955, 1957, 1958, 1960, 1962, 1964, 1966

One name above all others has become associated with walking in the Lake District: A. Wainwright, whose seven-volume Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells, first published in 1955–66, has become the definitive guidebook.  Wainwright’s meticulously hand-drawn maps, diagrams and drawings take you up the 214 principal hills and mountains of the Lake District, describing the main routes of ascent from different starting points, as well as lesser-known variants, showing the summit viewpoint panoramas and the ridge routes that can be made to create longer walks.

In 1955 the first of seven volumes of A. Wainwright’s A Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells was published by Henry Marshall of Kentmere.  Book 1 The Eastern Fells introduced the format of a chapter on each of the 35 fells identified by Wainwright in the area.

I’m pretty certain that Wainwright himself never intended his Pictorial Guides to result in a hill bagging list of 214 summits (there is no overall list or index for the fells) and his identified fells is purely a subjective list of his own personal highlights within Lakeland – there is no set height or prominence criteria used.

Wainwright’s Pictorial Guide work was completed in 1966 with the publication of Book 7 The Western Fells and his final summit of Starling Dodd.

Between 2005 and 2009 a Second Edition was published with a comprehensive programme of revision by Chris Jesty.

A Third Edition is now in course of publication with a sub title of Walkers Edition.  Thus time the task of updating Wainwright’s work has fallen to Clive Hutchby.  Books 1-6 have now been published in this Walkers Edition with Book 7 due out in June 2020.

Poucher – 1960

William Arthur Poucher (1891–1988), known as Walter, a nickname he acquired during his army service, was one of the leading British mountain photographers and guidebook writers during and following World War II.  He personally explored and photographed all the routes he describes in his famous mountain guides, so that users could be assured of correct directions.  He joined the Royal Photographic Society in 1940 achieving Associateship in 1941 and Fellowship (FRPS).  He was awarded Honorary Fellowship in 1975.

His guides followed those of the Abraham brothers in being exhaustively illustrated with the author's own photographs (usually in black and white).

Each guide includes a list of the principal peaks of the region and the relevant guidebook is The Lakeland Peaks (1960).  With no defined criteria it lists 116 peaks in Lakeland.

The guide is spilt into geographic groups with route descriptions for each summit.  His habit of drawing the route of ascent in white on the photograph was helpful for route-finding.  Landmarks are important for route-finding, especially where paths are indistinct, and he advises on important features to look for on the paths he describes including cairns, standing stones, bothies, distinctive rock formations, panoramas, views and natural features such as cascades and waterfalls.

Poucher’s photographs adorn many others’ guidebooks as well as his own such was the quality of his photography.

Wainwright Outlying Fells – 1974

The Outlying Fells of Lakeland is a follow up book written by Alfred Wainwright, dealing with hills in and around the edge of the Lake District.

It differs from the Pictorial Guides in that each of its 56 chapters describes a walk, sometimes taking in several summits, rather than a single fell.  This has caused some confusion on the part of authors attempting to prepare a definitive list of peaks.  The Outlying Fells do not form part of the 214 hills generally accepted as making up the Wainwrights, but they are included in Category 2B of the Hill Walkers Register maintained by the Long Distance Walkers Association.

The list at the back of Wainwright's book contains 110 named fells and summits.  Close inspection shows seven of them to refer to other hills in the list, while Newton Fell has two summits.  The addition of the 12 nameless summits brings the number of Wainwright's Outlying Fells to what is now the generally accepted total of 116.

Griffin  - 1978

In his introduction to his book ‘Freeman of the hills’ Griffin describes Lakeland as “A magical wonderland of beauty and adventure that will always be there”.  So true.

This book describes Griffin’s summer of 1977 where he decided, at the age of 66, to bag all the mountains of the Lake District within a target three month period.  He actually achieved it with 27 walking days finishing on Pillar Rock.

Griffin lists all 203 summits over 2,000 feet in an Appendix.  This list was derived from Francis Falkingham’s list of the 349 English Two Thousands published in the 1966 Journal of the Gritstone Club (see also Fryer 1984 below).

This book was written in the period of the UK’s transition from imperial to metric and whilst he still used imperial maps his introduction mused as to what would define an English mountain once mapping was converted to metric.  He correctly predicted that 600 metres would become the new threshold between a hill and a mountain.

The introduction also described at length the ethos of exploring every nook and cranny of the mountains including a challenge to traverse the Lake District East/West along the 09 grid which he believed to be the only grid that avoided tarns and lakes.

Arthur Harry Griffin (15 January 1911 – 9 July 2004), usually known in print as A. Harry Griffin, was a British journalist and mountaineer.  He is particularly remembered for his writing of rock-climbing in the Lake District in the inter-war years, especially a group called 'The Coniston Tigers'; for his long-running 'Lakeland Diary' column in The Guardian (spanning a period of 53 years); and for having inspired, via these columns, and an article in the Lancashire Evening Post, the rebirth of interest in the Bob Graham Round.

Harry was born in Barrow-in-Furness at the south-west corner of the Lake District.  His father ran a decorating firm, and Harry was educated at the local grammar school.  By the age of 17 he was a cub reporter on the Barrow Guardian.  Inevitably, he soon gravitated to the hills.  His first was Black Combe.

His wartime service was as an intelligence officer.  After the war he returned and lived in Kendal.

He was friends with Alfred Wainwright but somewhat disapproved of the damage to the fells that the popularity of Wainwright's guides could cause.

Book after book was to follow in celebration of his home hills.  In 1961 came Inside The Real Lakeland.  Two years later, In Mountain Lakeland, then Pageant Of Lakeland (1966), The Roof Of England (1968), Still the Real Lakeland (1970), Long Days In The Hills (1974), A Lakeland Notebook (1975), A Year In The Fells (1976), Freeman Of The Hills (1978), Discovering Lakeland (A Motorist's Guide) and Adventuring In Lakeland (1980), A Lakeland Mountain Diary (1990) and The Coniston Tigers (1999).

The Map of Lakeland in ‘Freeman of the hills’ detailing all the 203 Mountains was a sketch map by one A. Wainwright.

Mulholland – 1983

These are part of a series of three self-published books by H Mulholland on Lakeland, Wales and Ireland.  Very similar to the Furth Munros listing all summits over 3,000 feet with 8 in England and 15 in Wales. 

Within the introductory commentary Mulholland notes “…Munro never laid down a firm basis of defining a peak.  A close study of the tables together with the one inch to the mile map suggests generally a drop of 300 feet in all directions for a Peak and 50 feet in all directions for a Top; with these definitions…England [has] eight Tops”.

In addition to the usual four 3,000 feet Peaks, the four Tops are Broad Crag, Ill Crag, Symonds Knott and Helvellyn Lower Man.

These are guidebooks with general information, detailed multiple route descriptions and maps for each summit.


Fryer – 1984

This is an unusual book by J.K. Fryer in that it is in the form of a challenge which he called All but One by ‘doing the tops’ as he described it, of all 202 Lake District summits over 2,000 feet in height.

He was given a list of 203 tops including Pillar Rock which he excluded from the challenge as it is a rock climb.  I have it on good authority that the list in question was taken from the Falkingham (1966) list and the 203 summits in the Lake District do exactly match each other.

The book is spilt into 26 day routes each with a detailed step by step route description and map.

Marsh/ sub-Marsh – 1987

Part of a set of four guides by Terry Marsh; The Lake Mountains in two volumes first published in 1987, The Mountains of Wales and the Pennine Mountains.

The first guide books to use a metric criteria of 600 metres in height and a minimum of 30 metres of re-ascent, [but] including summits of sufficient topographical merit with less re-ascent.  Also included an appendix of all other named summits over 600 metres with less than 30 metres re-ascent (sub-Marsh).

Marsh’ research was based on 1:10,000 mapping conducted at the Ordnance Survey offices in Southampton.

There are route descriptions for each mountain with photos by the author.

Synge – 1995

Synge's Lakeland summits - hills from the book The Lakeland Summits by Tim Synge, covers the whole of the Lake District National Park based on a height criteria of 300 metres plus and no drop definition.  This is the largest individual hill bagging list for the Lake District with 647 summits.

This book is principally a reference guide, his Tables splits the summits between Separate Fells which have greater than 30 metre drop and Tops with less than 30 metre drop.  All are separately ranked by height order.

Note: this list is yet to be updated for the expansion of the National Park in August 2016.

Drews – 1996

An excellent hard back guidebook entitled The Lakeland One Hundred by John Drews describing 21 circular routes which encompass the 100 highest peaks in the Lake District.

To arrive at his highest peaks Drews consulted with the National Park Authority, The Royal Geographical Society and The British Mountaineering Council to conclude “that there was only one accepted ruling” that a peak must be 610 metres (2,000ft) or more above mean sea level, and have an ascent of at least 15 metres.  He therefore compiled his list from John and Ann Nuttall’s work on the English mountains.  I’m sure others in the bagging community would have alternative views on his conclusion.

There is a chapter for each of the 21 routes which were derived from his rules: each route returning to the starting point, avoiding backtracking as far as possible (only 5 miles out of 178 total miles) and avoiding overlapping routes.

John Drews was born and raised in Clitheroe in the Ribble Valley.  By trade he was a motor vehicle repairer, bar manager and rock concert promoter!  But his first love was mountains and tarns.  He is also the author of Lakeland High Tarns.

An interesting footnote to his listing is a summit by the name of Flesk at an altitude of 834 metres (2,736ft).  On further investigation this is nowadays commonly known as Crinkle Crags South Top (First Crinkle).  Referring back to the OS Six-Inch mapping from the late 1800’s this is indeed its correct name.  I think we need a campaign to bring back the name of Flesk for this summit.

FRCC- 1996 [under Parker, J. & Pickles, T.]

Hills from the book The Lakeland Fells published by the Fell and Rock Climbing Club of the English Lake District in 1996, edited by June Parker and Tim Pickles, which seeks to identify all fells over 300 metres in height, with public access and lying within the Lake District National Park.

The list includes all 214 Wainwrights, several additional low prominence high peaks, and all LDNP summits over 300m in height and P80m.  The fells over 610m in height the effective cut-off is P40m, with all but 11 of the 114 LDNP Hewitts anticipated (610m / P30m, published 1997), and 123 of the 171 LDNP Nuttalls (610m / P15m, published 1990) included.  Castle Crag included by exception as less than 300 metres in height.
Includes 17 of the Wainwright Outlying Fells.

Includes 139 route descriptions to bag all 244 summits.

Note: this list is yet to be updated for the expansion of the National Park in August 2016.

Birkett – 1998

A hill is classified as a Birkett if it is one of the 541 Lake District fells described in Bill Birkett's book Complete Lakeland Fells.  This book, first published in 1994, describes 129 walks taking in every hill over 1000 feet in height.  There is no drop definition.

This book is the most comprehensive and detailed route reference work on the Lakeland fells.  The region is divided into six geographic areas with 129 circular walks and superbly supported by over 200 colour photos.

The Long Distance Walkers Association maintains a register of people who have completed the Birketts.  One of Birkett's peaks, Pillar Rock, which is also classed as a Nuttall, but not a Wainwright, requires climbing ropes and equipment to summit.

Thomas William Birkett, but only ever called by his middle name, as per family tradition, which was always ‘Billy’ was born in May 1952 in the Lake District.  His father was a quarryman and his mother let out half their house and cottage and also did Bed & Breakfast for holiday visitors.  Birkett grew up in Little Langdale in the heart of the Lake District.

Bill Birkett describes himself as a rock climber, author and photographer.  Part of the famous Birkett family of rock climbers.  Bill Birkett is one of Britain’s foremost mountain writers and photographers and a leading climber and hill walker, and a former civil engineer; he has spent a lifetime exploring the hills and wild places of the world.

His photography illustrates numerous publications and his own books include the best-selling Complete Lakeland Fells and Great British Ridge Walks, Classic Treks of the World and his recent definitive guidebooks Exploring The Lakes and Low Fells (Vols 1 and 2).

Fellranger – 2008, 2008, 2009, 2009, 2011, 2011, 2012, 2013 [under Richards, M.]

There are 227 Lakeland fells described by Mark Richards in his 8-volume Lakeland Fellranger series, published by Cicerone.  As of 2019 the list of Fellranger summits now stands at 230, (previously 227 fells) while the traditional Wainwrights list features 214 fell summits.  While most of these are also included within the Fellranger list, some minor Wainwright hills have been discounted, while others found within the broader Lake District region have been included.

The three additional fells now comprising the 230 Fellranger's summits are:

·         Winterscleugh (Bretherdale Common) - 471m/1545ft
·         Whinfell Beacon - 494m/1620ft
·         Grayrigg Forest - 494m/1621ft

The Lakeland Fellranger guides provide a comprehensive guide to the fells of the English Lake District.  Divided into regions, expanding on Wainwright's method of classifying the Lake District, each book provides a dedicated chapter covering each fell with a variety of routes.

Mark Richards' transition from full-time farmer to full-time outdoor writer has been a gradual one.  In 1973, with the direct encouragement of Alfred Wainwright, he wrote his first walking guide to the Cotswold Way, after moving to Cumbria and many years of dedicated research, completed his Lakeland Fellranger series in 2013.

The Fellranger Series is now being superseded by Walking the Lake District Fells, which sees the volumes updated and trimmed to a more practical size.  In doing so Richards has added three extra fells in the south east extension area of the Lake District National Park taking the overall total to 230.


Lakeland Minor Prominences Summits within the Lake District National Park with less than 30m prominence and height generally exceeding 300 metres and considered to have sufficient topographical merit.  This list was the original idea from Rob Woodall and Phil Cooper arising out of Birkett’s and Synge’s lists.

In addition to height and prominence criteria, there must be some other feature of geographical and/or historic merit.  This may include:

           Good viewpoints
           Large cairns (especially if marked on OS maps)
           Historical features - tumulus, hill fort etc
           Impressive crags or other natural features
           End of ridges - lower than tops but better views maybe
           Distinctive point i.e. if there are a number of similarly prominent bumps, none (or just one if it has merit) should qualify

Full details available on the Haroldstreet website:

Relative Wainwrights – 2011 [under Jackson, M.]

Mark Jackson's list of the Tumps (p30) of the Lake District over 1000ft in height as described in the LDWA's Hillwalkers' Register Annual Report 2011.

The Relative Wainwrights sees around 56 of Wainwright's peaks deleted from the list as having less than 30m drop and the promotion of around 59 new peaks (Tumps) with over 30m drop and above 1000 feet in height that never made Wainwrights original list.  There are only two of the new additions that don't feature as either Birketts or Synges, namely; Oakhowe Crag (417m) and High Rigg SE Top (339m).

Full details available on the Haroldstreet website:

The 1,040 Lake District Summits - The Definitive List © - 2018

A comprehensive listing of all summits within the Lake District National Park boundary, Part of the Definitive List Series of each National Park of the UK and selected Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty created and published by Ronnie Bowron.

The Definitive Lists provide a hill bagging challenge for those who prefer to concentrate their bagging within the best landscapes of the UK. 
To be included in The Definitive List a summit needs to appear on any recognised hill bagging list.  As such to appear within a Definitive List series there are no topographic criteria and it is important to note that this is an active list so will change as and when summits are added to other lists.

The Definitive List list is available at:



Birkett, Bill 1998, Complete Lakeland Fells, Harper Collins Willow, London.  ISBN 0583322093

Definitive List [The] – The 1,040 Lake District Summits, accessed 1st January 2019, <http://www.haroldstreet.org.uk/waypoints/download/?area=ldnp> or <https://www.facebook.com/groups/1805294839716301/edit/>

Drews, John 1996, The Lakeland One Hundred, Harper Collins Publishers, London.  CIP CN 2074.

Fryer, J.K. 1984, Climbing Lakeland Peaks, The Dalesman Publishing Company Ltd, Clapham.  ISBN 0 85206 767 4.

Furths, Scottish Mountaineering Club, accessed 1st January 2019, <www.smc.org.uk/hills/hill-lists>

Griffin, A.H. 1978, Freeman of the Hills, Robert Hale Limited, London.  ISBN 0 7091 7222 2.

Jackson, M. 2011, ‘Relative Wainwrights’, LDWA's Hillwalkers' Register Annual Report, 2011.  ppxx-xx.

LaMPs 2019, Harold Street website, accessed 1st January 2019, <http://www.haroldstreet.org.uk/waypoints/download/?list=LaMPs>

Marsh, T 1987, The Lake Mountains Book One, Hodder & Stoughton, London.  ISBN 0-340-38786-6.

Marsh, T 1987, The Lake Mountains Book Two, Hodder & Stoughton, London.  ISBN 0-340-41045-0.

Mulholland, H 1983, Guide to Lakeland’s 3000-foot Mountains THE ENGLISH MUNROS, Mulholland-Wirral, Little Neston.  ISBN0 95077121 2 4.

Parker, J. & Pickles, T. 1996, The Lakeland Fells, The Fell and Rock Climbing Club and Ernest Press, Keswick.  ISBN 0-85028-039-7 [FRCC]

Poucher, W.A. 1960, The Lakeland Peaks, Constable & Co Ltd, London.  ISBN 978 0 7112 2405 6.

Richards, M. 2008, The Central Fells, Cicerone Press, Milnthorpe.  ISBN 978 1 8528 4540 7

Richards, M. 2008, The Near Eastern Fells, Cicerone Press, Milnthorpe.  ISBN 978 1 8528 4541 4

Richards, M. 2009, The Mid-Western Fells, Cicerone Press, Milnthorpe.  ISBN 978 1 8528 4543 8

Richards, M. 2009, The Southern Fells, Cicerone Press, Milnthorpe.  ISBN 978 1 8528 4542 1

Richards, M. 2011, The North-Western Fells, Cicerone Press, Milnthorpe.  ISBN 978 1 8528 4545 2

Richards, M. 2011, The Western Fells, Cicerone Press, Milnthorpe.  ISBN 978 1 8528 4544 5

Richards, M. 2012, The Northern Fells, Cicerone Press, Milnthorpe.  ISBN 978 1 8528 4546 9.

Richards, M. 2013, The Far Eastern Fells, Cicerone Press, Milnthorpe.  ISBN 978 1 8528 4547 6

Simpson, F. H. F. 1937, ‘Concerning Contours’, Wayfarer's Journal, No. 5 1937, pp18-24.

Synge, T. 1995, The Lakeland Summits A survey of the fells of the Lake District National Park, Sigma Press, Wilmslow, Cheshire.  ISBN 1-85058-446-X.

Wainwright, A. 1955, A Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells book 1 The Eastern Fells, Henry Marshall, Kentmere.

Wainwright, A. 1957, A Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells book 2 The Far Eastern Fells, Henry Marshall, Kentmere.

Wainwright, A. 1958, A Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells book 3 The Central Fells, Henry Marshall, Kentmere.

Wainwright, A. 1960, A Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells book 4 The Southern Fells, Henry Marshall, Kentmere.

Wainwright, A. 1962, A Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells book 5 The Northern Fells, Henry Marshall, Kentmere.

Wainwright, A. 1964, A Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells book 6 The North Western Fells, Westmorland Gazette, Kendal.

Wainwright, A. 1966, A Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells book 7 The Western Fells, Westmorland Gazette, Kendal.

Wainwright, A. 1974, The Outlying Fells of Lakeland, Westmorland Gazette, Kendal.

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